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Rätten att bilda familj oavsett sexuell läggning - En analys av Europadomstolens praxis

Itzigehl, Cecilia LU (2012) JURM02 20122
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
HBT-rättigheter är, och har under de senaste trettio åren varit, en aktuell politisk och juridisk fråga i Europa. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att utifrån Europadomstolens praxis diskutera vilka familjerättigheter HBT-personer har idag i Europa, och även diskutera den aktuella forskningen kring rättighetsutvecklingen i Europadomstolens praxis när det gäller denna fråga. Med dessa frågeställningar som grund beskriver denna uppsats rätts- och forskningsläget, samt knyter det empiriska materialet till de teorier om rättighetsutvecklingen som finns i aktuell doktrin.

Uppsatsen beskriver först de för ämnet relevanta artiklarna 8, 12 och 14 i Europakonventionen, och de principer Europadomstolen använder för att tolka dessa. Sedan... (More)
HBT-rättigheter är, och har under de senaste trettio åren varit, en aktuell politisk och juridisk fråga i Europa. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att utifrån Europadomstolens praxis diskutera vilka familjerättigheter HBT-personer har idag i Europa, och även diskutera den aktuella forskningen kring rättighetsutvecklingen i Europadomstolens praxis när det gäller denna fråga. Med dessa frågeställningar som grund beskriver denna uppsats rätts- och forskningsläget, samt knyter det empiriska materialet till de teorier om rättighetsutvecklingen som finns i aktuell doktrin.

Uppsatsen beskriver först de för ämnet relevanta artiklarna 8, 12 och 14 i Europakonventionen, och de principer Europadomstolen använder för att tolka dessa. Sedan presenteras det empiriska materialet i form av domar och beslut från Europadomstolen och Europakommissionen, och det aktuella rättsläget klargörs. Därefter beskrivs det aktuella forskningsläget och de olika teorier kring rättighetsutvecklingen som finns.

Slutsatserna blir att när det gäller Europadomstolens avgöranden rörande HBT-rättigheter kan man säga att fokus idag har flyttats från så kallade ”sex rights” till ”love rights”. Från att ha behandlat domar som rör HBT-personers rätt att få utleva sin sexualitet och att inte bli diskriminerade på grund av denna, har frågan nu förflyttats till att gälla HBT-personers rätt till rättsligt erkännande och likabehandling av sina kärleksförhållanden. Svaret på frågan om alla idag har rätt att bilda familj oavsett sexuell läggning enligt Europakonventionen får tyvärr besvaras nekande. Det finns dock skillnader beroende på vilken rättighet det är frågan om och beroende på om det gäller transsexuella eller homosexuella, par eller individer.

Resultatet av den empiriska rättsfallsundersökningen visar tydligt att erkännandet av HBT-personers rättigheter sker i en viss ordning, och att det i Europadomstolen är lättare för HBT-personer att hävda privata rättigheter än offentliga rättigheter. Hinder för rättighetsutvecklingen är både lagstiftningens heteronormativa konstruktion och den heteronormativa tillämpningen av denna. Den främsta anledningen till att området HBT-rättigheter har kunnat utvecklas relativt snabbt de senaste trettio åren är Europadomstolens användning av living instrument doktrinen. Avgörande faktorer för den fortsatta utvecklingen av HBT-personers familjerättigheter är: en mer moralisk tolkning av Europakonventionen, en ökad tolerans av homosexualitet, en ökad medvetenhet om mänskliga rättigheter, upplösande av de värderingar som binder äktenskapet till könsordning och reproduktion, samt en ökad sekularisering i Europa.

Uppsatsen visar att det är en lång väg kvar till lika rättigheter för alla, att oavsett sexuell läggning, bilda familj. Europadomstolens tolkningar av Europakonventionen har dock i flera fall lett, och fortsätter att leda, till utveckling av HBT-personers rättigheter i många europeiska länder. (Less)
Abstract
LGBT rights are, and have for the last thirty years been, a current political and legal issue in Europe. The purpose with this Thesis is to, based on the ECtHR’s practice, discuss which family rights LGBT-persons’ have today in Europe. Furthermore the paper will deal with what the current doctrine has to say about this development of rights in the ECtHR’s practice. With these issues as a cornerstone, this Thesis will explore the current legal position of the ECtHR and doctrine, and also link the empirical material to the theories about legal development contained within the current doctrine.

The Thesis describes the subject matter’s relevant articles within the ECHR namely articles 8, 12 and 14 and also the principles that the ECtHR... (More)
LGBT rights are, and have for the last thirty years been, a current political and legal issue in Europe. The purpose with this Thesis is to, based on the ECtHR’s practice, discuss which family rights LGBT-persons’ have today in Europe. Furthermore the paper will deal with what the current doctrine has to say about this development of rights in the ECtHR’s practice. With these issues as a cornerstone, this Thesis will explore the current legal position of the ECtHR and doctrine, and also link the empirical material to the theories about legal development contained within the current doctrine.

The Thesis describes the subject matter’s relevant articles within the ECHR namely articles 8, 12 and 14 and also the principles that the ECtHR applies when interpreting these provisions. Thereafter the empirical material is presented in the form of judgments and decisions from the ECtHR and the European Commission, and the current legal climate is clarified. Lastly the current research situation and theories about the legal development is described.

The conclusions are as follows when describing the ECtHR’s decisions concerning LGBT-rights: focus has been shifted from what is called “sex rights” to “love rights” i.e. focus has gone from LGBT-persons’ rights to express their sexuality and not to be discriminated against, towards their rights’ to legal recognition and equal treatment of their relationships with one another. Nonetheless, the answer to the question whether everyone is entitled to start a family under the ECHR will still have to be answered in the negative. It is however important to point that there are gradations depending on what right is examined and depending on who or whom is affected i.e. couples or singles, homosexuals or transsexuals.

The result of the case study clearly shows that recognition of LGBT-persons rights is systematic, and that in the ECtHR it is easier for LGBT-persons to claim private rights rather than public ones. The obstacles are mainly the legislations heteronormative construction and its subsequent application. The foremost reason that the sphere of LGBT-rights has been able to evolve relatively swiftly during these last thirty years, is the ECtHR’s use of the living instrument doctrine. Key factors for the continuing development of LGBT-persons’ family rights would be a more moral interpretation of the ECHR, an increased tolerance towards homosexuality, an increased awareness of human rights, the dissolving of values that tie marriage to gender and reproduction and finally an increased secularization in Europe.

This Thesis shows that there are still obstacles to overcome before everyone, regardless of sexual orientation, has the right to start a family. However, the ECtHR’s interpretations of the ECHR have in several cases led, and continues to lead, to the extension of LGBT-persons’ rights in many European countries. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Itzigehl, Cecilia LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The right to found a family regardless of sexual orientation - an analysis of the European Court of Human Rights practice
course
JURM02 20122
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
familjerätt, homosexuellas rättigheter, transsexuellas rättigheter, Europakonventionen, Europadomstolen, familj
language
Swedish
id
3348953
date added to LUP
2013-01-14 09:36:50
date last changed
2013-01-14 09:36:50
@misc{3348953,
  abstract     = {LGBT rights are, and have for the last thirty years been, a current political and legal issue in Europe. The purpose with this Thesis is to, based on the ECtHR’s practice, discuss which family rights LGBT-persons’ have today in Europe. Furthermore the paper will deal with what the current doctrine has to say about this development of rights in the ECtHR’s practice. With these issues as a cornerstone, this Thesis will explore the current legal position of the ECtHR and doctrine, and also link the empirical material to the theories about legal development contained within the current doctrine. 

The Thesis describes the subject matter’s relevant articles within the ECHR namely articles 8, 12 and 14 and also the principles that the ECtHR applies when interpreting these provisions. Thereafter the empirical material is presented in the form of judgments and decisions from the ECtHR and the European Commission, and the current legal climate is clarified. Lastly the current research situation and theories about the legal development is described. 

The conclusions are as follows when describing the ECtHR’s decisions concerning LGBT-rights: focus has been shifted from what is called “sex rights” to “love rights” i.e. focus has gone from LGBT-persons’ rights to express their sexuality and not to be discriminated against, towards their rights’ to legal recognition and equal treatment of their relationships with one another. Nonetheless, the answer to the question whether everyone is entitled to start a family under the ECHR will still have to be answered in the negative. It is however important to point that there are gradations depending on what right is examined and depending on who or whom is affected i.e. couples or singles, homosexuals or transsexuals.

The result of the case study clearly shows that recognition of LGBT-persons rights is systematic, and that in the ECtHR it is easier for LGBT-persons to claim private rights rather than public ones. The obstacles are mainly the legislations heteronormative construction and its subsequent application. The foremost reason that the sphere of LGBT-rights has been able to evolve relatively swiftly during these last thirty years, is the ECtHR’s use of the living instrument doctrine. Key factors for the continuing development of LGBT-persons’ family rights would be a more moral interpretation of the ECHR, an increased tolerance towards homosexuality, an increased awareness of human rights, the dissolving of values that tie marriage to gender and reproduction and finally an increased secularization in Europe. 

This Thesis shows that there are still obstacles to overcome before everyone, regardless of sexual orientation, has the right to start a family. However, the ECtHR’s interpretations of the ECHR have in several cases led, and continues to lead, to the extension of LGBT-persons’ rights in many European countries.},
  author       = {Itzigehl, Cecilia},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,homosexuellas rättigheter,transsexuellas rättigheter,Europakonventionen,Europadomstolen,familj},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Rätten att bilda familj oavsett sexuell läggning - En analys av Europadomstolens praxis},
  year         = {2012},
}