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Hur man särskilt beaktar unga lagöverträdare i straffrättsprocessen

Guldstrand, Tobias LU (2012) JURM02 20122
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Det straffrättsliga systemet präglas idag av en nyklassisk kriminalpolitik vilken betonar handlingen, handlingens konsekvenser, skulden och brottets svårhet. Dessa faktorer bestämmer straffvärdet vilket medför att de straffrättsliga principerna om bl.a. proportionalitet, förutsebarhet och konsekvens upprätthålls. Straffvärdet som sådant utgör nämligen grunden för påföljdsvalet. Men det finns ytterligare faktorer som måste beaktas. Faktorer som ger en möjlighet att i det enskilda fallet mäta ut ett annat straff än det som straffvärdet kräver. Särskilt viktiga är sådan faktorer som hänför sig till den tilltalades ungdom. För när det gäller de unga lagöverträdarna är det inte tillräckligt att fokusera på de brottsliga gärningarna som sådana,... (More)
Det straffrättsliga systemet präglas idag av en nyklassisk kriminalpolitik vilken betonar handlingen, handlingens konsekvenser, skulden och brottets svårhet. Dessa faktorer bestämmer straffvärdet vilket medför att de straffrättsliga principerna om bl.a. proportionalitet, förutsebarhet och konsekvens upprätthålls. Straffvärdet som sådant utgör nämligen grunden för påföljdsvalet. Men det finns ytterligare faktorer som måste beaktas. Faktorer som ger en möjlighet att i det enskilda fallet mäta ut ett annat straff än det som straffvärdet kräver. Särskilt viktiga är sådan faktorer som hänför sig till den tilltalades ungdom. För när det gäller de unga lagöverträdarna är det inte tillräckligt att fokusera på de brottsliga gärningarna som sådana, utan hela den unges situation måste beaktas. Den behandlingsideologi som tidigare har präglat brottsbalken har nämligen inte övergivits när det gäller de unga lagöverträdarna. Med anledning därav särbehandlas unga lagöverträdare genomgående i straffrättsprocessen. Utgångspunkten är att unga människor ska hållas utanför domstolar och kriminalvård och istället främst bli föremål för insatser inom socialtjänsten. Härav följer att samtliga åtgärder som rör den unge måste anpassas till dennes särskilda förhållanden.

Därför tar sig särbehandlingen av de unga lagöverträdarna olika uttryck beroende på var i straffrättsprocessen den äger rum. Utrednings- samt domstolsförfarandet präglas genomgående av krav om skyndsamhet och hänsyn till den unge. Straffmätningen i sin tur utmärks av hänsynstagande till den unge, dels på grund av att det anses förmildrande att den unge befinner sig i en utvecklingsfas mellan barndom och vuxenliv, dels genom en ungdomsrabatt vilken hänförs till att straffrättsliga ingripanden i allmänhet drabbar unga personer hårdare än vuxna. Ungdomsrabatten tar nämligen sikte på låg ålder som en allmän grund som ska beaktas i sänkande riktning vid straffmätningen och som sådan är ungdomsrabatten den faktor som främst bestämmer straffmätningsvärdet för den unge. För att uppnå enhetlighet i tillämpandet av ungdomsrabatten har det utarbetats riktlinjer vilka avser att tjäna som utgångspunkt för domstolarna vid straffmätningen.

När det gäller påföljdsbestämning så särbehandlar man de unga lagöverträdarna genom att tillämpa särskilda påföljder, såsom ungdomsvård, ungdomstjänst och sluten ungdomsvård, vilka har anpassats så att den unge ska kunna få rätt anpassad vård och behandling och på så vis avhålla sig från fortsatt kriminalitet. Det råder en princip om att unga människor i möjligaste mån ska hållas utanför fängelserna. Denna upprätthålls genom att kraven som talar för att döma en ung lagöverträdare till en frihetsberövande påföljd måste vara starkare desto yngre lagöverträdaren är.

Särbehandlingen av unga lagöverträdare befinner sig i ständig utveckling. Det senaste är förslag om förändringar i de befintliga ungdomspåföljderna samt ett förslag om att komplettera påföljdssystemet så att det alltid ska finnas en särskild ungdomspåföljd att ådöma en ung lagöverträdare. (Less)
Abstract
The criminal justice system currently emphasizes the action, the consequences of the action, the liability and the gravity of the offense. These factors determine the penalty value, which means that the criminal justice principles such as proportionality, predictability and consistency is maintained. The penalty value as such constitutes the basis when deciding on a suitable penalty. But there are additional factors that must be considered. Factors that gives an opportunity to measure out another penalty than the penalty value requires. Particulary imortant are such factors relating to the defendant's youth. For in the case of young offenders, it is not enough to focus on the criminal offenses as such, but the whole of the young person's... (More)
The criminal justice system currently emphasizes the action, the consequences of the action, the liability and the gravity of the offense. These factors determine the penalty value, which means that the criminal justice principles such as proportionality, predictability and consistency is maintained. The penalty value as such constitutes the basis when deciding on a suitable penalty. But there are additional factors that must be considered. Factors that gives an opportunity to measure out another penalty than the penalty value requires. Particulary imortant are such factors relating to the defendant's youth. For in the case of young offenders, it is not enough to focus on the criminal offenses as such, but the whole of the young person's situation must be considered. Because the treatment ideology that previously characterized the Criminal Code has not been abandoned in the case of young offenders. This is the reason why young offenders throughout the criminal legal process are treated in a privileged manner. The point is that young people should be kept out of the courts and correctional services and instead primarily receive care from the social services. Therefore should all actions relating to the young be adapted to their particular conditions.

That's why the privileged way in which the young offender is treated is different depending on where in the criminal legal process it takes place. The investigation and the court proceedings are throughout characterized by demands for promptness and consideration of the young. Penalty measurement is mostly characterized by consideration of the young, partly because it is considered mitigating that the young are in a phase of development between childhood and adulthood, and partly through a youth discount which relates to the fact that criminal justice interventions generally affects young people more severely than adults. The youth discount takes aim at a young age as a general basis to be considered in a lowering direction, and as such the youth discount is the factor that mainly determines the punishment value for the young offender. In order to achieve consistency in the application of the youth discount there have developed guidelines which are to serve as a basis for the courts penalty measurement.

When deciding on a suitable penalty the young offender is sentenced to specific juvenile sanctions, such as youth care, youth service and youth custody, which have been adapted so that the young person should be able to get the right customized care and treatment and thus refrain from further crime. There is a principle that young people wherever possible should be kept out of prison. The reasons for sentencing a young offender to prison therefore needs to be stronger the younger the offender is.

The privileged way in which young offenders are treated is in constant development. Lately there is a proposal for changes in the existing juvenile sanctions and a proposal to supplement the sanction system so that there will always be a special juvenile sanction to impose on a young offender. (Less)
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author
Guldstrand, Tobias LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
How to take account of young offenders in the criminal legal process
course
JURM02 20122
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
3348956
date added to LUP
2013-01-29 07:42:07
date last changed
2013-01-29 07:42:07
@misc{3348956,
  abstract     = {The criminal justice system currently emphasizes the action, the consequences of the action, the liability and the gravity of the offense. These factors determine the penalty value, which means that the criminal justice principles such as proportionality, predictability and consistency is maintained. The penalty value as such constitutes the basis when deciding on a suitable penalty. But there are additional factors that must be considered. Factors that gives an opportunity to measure out another penalty than the penalty value requires. Particulary imortant are such factors relating to the defendant's youth. For in the case of young offenders, it is not enough to focus on the criminal offenses as such, but the whole of the young person's situation must be considered. Because the treatment ideology that previously characterized the Criminal Code has not been abandoned in the case of young offenders. This is the reason why young offenders throughout the criminal legal process are treated in a privileged manner. The point is that young people should be kept out of the courts and correctional services and instead primarily receive care from the social services. Therefore should all actions relating to the young be adapted to their particular conditions.

That's why the privileged way in which the young offender is treated is different depending on where in the criminal legal process it takes place. The investigation and the court proceedings are throughout characterized by demands for promptness and consideration of the young. Penalty measurement is mostly characterized by consideration of the young, partly because it is considered mitigating that the young are in a phase of development between childhood and adulthood, and partly through a youth discount which relates to the fact that criminal justice interventions generally affects young people more severely than adults. The youth discount takes aim at a young age as a general basis to be considered in a lowering direction, and as such the youth discount is the factor that mainly determines the punishment value for the young offender. In order to achieve consistency in the application of the youth discount there have developed guidelines which are to serve as a basis for the courts penalty measurement.

When deciding on a suitable penalty the young offender is sentenced to specific juvenile sanctions, such as youth care, youth service and youth custody, which have been adapted so that the young person should be able to get the right customized care and treatment and thus refrain from further crime. There is a principle that young people wherever possible should be kept out of prison. The reasons for sentencing a young offender to prison therefore needs to be stronger the younger the offender is.

The privileged way in which young offenders are treated is in constant development. Lately there is a proposal for changes in the existing juvenile sanctions and a proposal to supplement the sanction system so that there will always be a special juvenile sanction to impose on a young offender.},
  author       = {Guldstrand, Tobias},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Hur man särskilt beaktar unga lagöverträdare i straffrättsprocessen},
  year         = {2012},
}