Advanced

Förändrad gradindelning och straffvärdebedömning för narkotikabrott - revolution eller tillnyktring?

Sundman, Johanna LU (2012) JURM02 20122
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Narkotika har sedan 1960-talet utgjort ett allvarligt samhällsproblem i Sverige. En skyndsam utbredning har varit en bidragande faktor till stor del av den grova brottsligheten i landet. På 1970-talet infördes målet om ett narkotikafritt samhälle i Norden, vilket sedan dess varit ledande för Sverige. Utmärkande för Sveriges narkotikapolitik är ett strängt och restriktivt förhållningssätt. Ett narkotikafritt samhälle har präglat NSL och motiverat en ständigt straffskärpande utveckling. Målet har kritiserats för att vara orealistiskt. Kritik är befogad med tanke på att narkotikaproblematiken ökat sedan ett narkotikafritt samhälle infördes som norm för över 40 år sedan.

Narkotikabrott har utmärkt sig inom straffrätten på flera sätt. Dels... (More)
Narkotika har sedan 1960-talet utgjort ett allvarligt samhällsproblem i Sverige. En skyndsam utbredning har varit en bidragande faktor till stor del av den grova brottsligheten i landet. På 1970-talet infördes målet om ett narkotikafritt samhälle i Norden, vilket sedan dess varit ledande för Sverige. Utmärkande för Sveriges narkotikapolitik är ett strängt och restriktivt förhållningssätt. Ett narkotikafritt samhälle har präglat NSL och motiverat en ständigt straffskärpande utveckling. Målet har kritiserats för att vara orealistiskt. Kritik är befogad med tanke på att narkotikaproblematiken ökat sedan ett narkotikafritt samhälle infördes som norm för över 40 år sedan.

Narkotikabrott har utmärkt sig inom straffrätten på flera sätt. Dels för att det utdelats exceptionellt höga straff för narkotikabrott i förhållande till övrig brottslighet och dels för att rubricering och straffvärdebedömning avgjorts utefter schabloner. Den schablonartade bedömningen har inneburit att endast arten och mängden narkotika varit avgörande för gradindelning och straffvärde. En tillfredsställande straffvärdebedömning, som beaktar alla omständigheter relevanta för brottet, har därför inte tillgodosetts. Ett straffvärde ska avspegla en specifik gärnings förkastlighet. Brottets skada, kränkning, fara samt gärningsmannens skuld ska ligga till grund för straffvärdet i enlighet med 29 kap 1 § BrB. Grundläggande straffrättsliga värderingar ger vid handen att en rättvis straffvärdebedömning upprätthåller principer om proportionalitet, ekvivalens och förutsägbarhet. Rättvisa har varit en teoretisk aspekt i analysen för att belysa grunderna i rubricering och straffvärdebedömning.

Rubriceringen och straffvärdbedömning för narkotikabrotten sätts genom HD:s avgörande i NJA 2011 s. 357 i gungning. Syftet med framställningen har varit att analysera NJA 2011 s. 357 och därefter 13 avgöranden från HD för att ta reda på vilka omständigheter som efter förändringen ligger till grund för rubricering och straffvärdebedömning i narkotikamål. Genom praxis har de höga straffen som utdelats för narkotikabrott och den schabloniserade bedömning som tidigare gjorts tillbakavisats. HD påbjuder genom praxis en nyanserad bedömning av narkotikabrott som samspelar med de straffvärdebedömningar som sker inom övrig brottslighet. Praxis tydliggör de omständigheter, som utöver art och mängd narkotika, ska beaktas vid gradindelning och straffvärdebedömning såsom gärningsmannens avsikt, narkotikaorganisationen och dess omfattning, insikt i narkotikaverksamheten, vinstsyfte, spridning och om brottet föranletts av eget missbruk. Någon revolution av straffvärdebedömningen är det inte tal om. En tillnyktring är mer relevant. Lagtext, motiv och grundläggande principer inom straffrätten har länge förespråkat en bedömning som beaktar fler omständigheter än art och mängd narkotika vid straffvärdebedömningen. Den straffsänkning som nyanseringen medfört innebär däremot en revolution i jämförelse med de orättvisor som tidigare präglat straffvärdet. (Less)
Abstract
Drugs were noted as a serious public issue in Sweden during the 1960s with its accelerated expansion and conduciveness to heavy criminality. During the 1970s, the drug policy towards a drug free society was introduced in the Nordic region, and is still today advocated in Sweden. The drug policy in Sweden is known for the severe and restrictive approach. The drug policy has characterized the Swedish legislation of drug offenses and constantly justified sharpening developments in the legislation. The drug policy has been criticized for being unreachable, which must say is justified, because of the increasing drug problems since the drug policy entered for over 40 years ago.

Drug offenses have distinguished themselves within the criminal... (More)
Drugs were noted as a serious public issue in Sweden during the 1960s with its accelerated expansion and conduciveness to heavy criminality. During the 1970s, the drug policy towards a drug free society was introduced in the Nordic region, and is still today advocated in Sweden. The drug policy in Sweden is known for the severe and restrictive approach. The drug policy has characterized the Swedish legislation of drug offenses and constantly justified sharpening developments in the legislation. The drug policy has been criticized for being unreachable, which must say is justified, because of the increasing drug problems since the drug policy entered for over 40 years ago.

Drug offenses have distinguished themselves within the criminal law in many different ways. Partly because the exceptionally high penal value which has been distributed for drug offenses compared to other types of crimes, but also because the classification and assessment of penal value among drug offenses are based on templates including quantity and type of drug. A satisfied assessment of penal value, which includes all circumstances of the crime, has not been made. A penal value is supposed to reflect specific crimes reprehensibility. The damage of the crime, violation, danger and the offenders guilt should determine the penal value, according to chapter 29 paragraph 1 in the Swedish criminal code. Fundamental criminal values maintain a fair assessment of penal value which provides proportionality, equivalence and predictability to the assessment. Justice has been a theoretical guidance for the analysis in the thesis to illustrate important grounds in classification and the penal value assessment.

In 2011 the verdict from the Swedish Supreme Court, NJA 2011 s. 357, starts a turn in the classification and assessment of penal value for drug offense. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the verdict NJA 2011 s. 357 and thereafter the following thirteen judgments from the Supreme Court, to determine the circumstances which should be considered when classification and assessment of penal value is decided. The previous high penalties and the assessment based on templates, have because of changes in the case law, been rejected. The Supreme Court provides now through the case law a neutralized penalty for drug offenses, which interacts with penalties for other crimes. The case law clarifies the circumstances that, beyond quantity and type of drug, should be considered when assessing such as the offenders intentions, the drug organizations and its extent, the offenders knowledge of the drug organization, profit, distribution and if the crime is based on a drug addiction. A revolution of the assessment of penal value is not to speak of. A sobering is more relevant. The legislation, motives and fundamental principles has a long time provided an assessment which includes more circumstances that quantity and type of drug. The reduction of the penal value for drug offenses is a revolution in comparison with to the former unjust penal value. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Sundman, Johanna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Changed classification and assessment of penal value for drug offenses - revolution or sobering?
course
JURM02 20122
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, narkotikabrott, narkotika, straffvärdebedömning, straffvärde, gradindelning
language
Swedish
id
3350526
date added to LUP
2013-01-28 13:07:09
date last changed
2013-01-28 13:07:09
@misc{3350526,
  abstract     = {Drugs were noted as a serious public issue in Sweden during the 1960s with its accelerated expansion and conduciveness to heavy criminality. During the 1970s, the drug policy towards a drug free society was introduced in the Nordic region, and is still today advocated in Sweden. The drug policy in Sweden is known for the severe and restrictive approach. The drug policy has characterized the Swedish legislation of drug offenses and constantly justified sharpening developments in the legislation. The drug policy has been criticized for being unreachable, which must say is justified, because of the increasing drug problems since the drug policy entered for over 40 years ago. 

Drug offenses have distinguished themselves within the criminal law in many different ways. Partly because the exceptionally high penal value which has been distributed for drug offenses compared to other types of crimes, but also because the classification and assessment of penal value among drug offenses are based on templates including quantity and type of drug. A satisfied assessment of penal value, which includes all circumstances of the crime, has not been made. A penal value is supposed to reflect specific crimes reprehensibility. The damage of the crime, violation, danger and the offenders guilt should determine the penal value, according to chapter 29 paragraph 1 in the Swedish criminal code. Fundamental criminal values maintain a fair assessment of penal value which provides proportionality, equivalence and predictability to the assessment. Justice has been a theoretical guidance for the analysis in the thesis to illustrate important grounds in classification and the penal value assessment.

In 2011 the verdict from the Swedish Supreme Court, NJA 2011 s. 357, starts a turn in the classification and assessment of penal value for drug offense. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the verdict NJA 2011 s. 357 and thereafter the following thirteen judgments from the Supreme Court, to determine the circumstances which should be considered when classification and assessment of penal value is decided. The previous high penalties and the assessment based on templates, have because of changes in the case law, been rejected. The Supreme Court provides now through the case law a neutralized penalty for drug offenses, which interacts with penalties for other crimes. The case law clarifies the circumstances that, beyond quantity and type of drug, should be considered when assessing such as the offenders intentions, the drug organizations and its extent, the offenders knowledge of the drug organization, profit, distribution and if the crime is based on a drug addiction. A revolution of the assessment of penal value is not to speak of. A sobering is more relevant. The legislation, motives and fundamental principles has a long time provided an assessment which includes more circumstances that quantity and type of drug. The reduction of the penal value for drug offenses is a revolution in comparison with to the former unjust penal value.},
  author       = {Sundman, Johanna},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,narkotikabrott,narkotika,straffvärdebedömning,straffvärde,gradindelning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Förändrad gradindelning och straffvärdebedömning för narkotikabrott - revolution eller tillnyktring?},
  year         = {2012},
}