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Samarbetssamtal och inomrättslig medling i mål om vårdnad, boende och umgänge

Kraft, Carl LU (2012) JURM02 20122
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den svenska familjerättsliga regleringen har sedan länge präglats av strävan att söka tillgodose barnets intresse i relation till föräldrarna. Ett tydligt uttryck för denna strävan finner man i föräldrabalkens 6 kap. 2 a § där det stadgas att barnets bästa ska vara avgörande för alla beslut om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. En ytterligare strävan i den familjerättsliga regleringen har varit att söka underlätta för föräldrar att själva kunna lösa frågor om ett barns vårdnad, boende och umgänge innan domstol avgör saken. Denna strävan har sin utgångspunkt i att samförståndslösningar mellan föräldrarna, i högre grad än ett domstolsavgörande, kan antas vara till barnets bästa. Som resultat av detta har domstol möjlighet att förordna om... (More)
Den svenska familjerättsliga regleringen har sedan länge präglats av strävan att söka tillgodose barnets intresse i relation till föräldrarna. Ett tydligt uttryck för denna strävan finner man i föräldrabalkens 6 kap. 2 a § där det stadgas att barnets bästa ska vara avgörande för alla beslut om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. En ytterligare strävan i den familjerättsliga regleringen har varit att söka underlätta för föräldrar att själva kunna lösa frågor om ett barns vårdnad, boende och umgänge innan domstol avgör saken. Denna strävan har sin utgångspunkt i att samförståndslösningar mellan föräldrarna, i högre grad än ett domstolsavgörande, kan antas vara till barnets bästa. Som resultat av detta har domstol möjlighet att förordna om samarbetssamtal och inomrättslig medling, för föräldrar som tvistar vid domstol i frågor om ett barns vårdnad, boende och umgänge. Avsikten är att underlätta för föräldrar att själva träffa en överenskommelse i dessa frågor.

Framställningen i denna uppsats syftar till att jämföra, diskutera och analysera de två rättsliga instituten samarbetssamtal och inomrättslig medling i mål om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. I uppsatsen presenteras en jämförelse mellan de två instituten, en framställning av intervjuer med medlare och en analys av medlingsinstitutet.

De två rättsliga instituten tycks vid en jämförelse vara förhållandevis lika varandra, sett till institutens syften och användningsområden. De skiljer sig emellertid åt i ett antal avseenden. Särskilt gäller detta de två avseenden som kan antas ha störst inverkan på om föräldrarna lyckas nå en överenskommelse, nämligen vad gäller vilka personer som är verksamma i samarbetssamtalen och vid medling, samt hur samtalen med föräldrarna genomförs inom ramen för respektive institut.

Genom intervjuer med personer som har stor erfarenhet av arbete som medlare i mål om vårdnad, boende och umgänge framkommer att sättet på vilket medlingen bedrivs, skiljer sig åt från medlare till medlare. Det gäller bl.a. dels vilka metoder som används, dels i vilken omfattning barnets bästa och vilja får komma till uttryck i medlingen.

I analysen konstateras att bilden av medlingsinstitutet, sett till den rättsliga regleringen och de svar som intervjuerna genererat, är splittrad. Å ena sidan framstår medlingen som ett verkningsfullt medel att använda då det föreligger stora samarbetssvårigheter mellan två föräldrar, å andra sidan verkar institutet ha intagit en marginaliserad ställning som tvistlösningsform i mål om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. Lagstiftarens tanke med ett kompletterande institut verkar dock i viss mån ha uppfyllts. För att medlingsinstitutet ska kunna stärkas och utvecklas krävs emellertid ett antal åtgärder, något som diskuteras i uppsatsen. (Less)
Abstract
Swedish family law has long been governed by the aspiration to accommodate the interests of the child, rather than that of the parents. A distinct expression of this aspiration can be found in a provision of the Swedish Children and Parents code, 6 chapter § 2 a. In this provision it is stated that the best interests of the child shall be the determining factor in all decisions regarding custody, residence and access. Yet another aspiration by the legislative body has been to seek to facilitate the possibilities for parents to decide amongst themselves in questions regarding their child’s custody, residence and access. This aspiration is based on the notion that an agreement between the parents, to a higher degree than a court order, is in... (More)
Swedish family law has long been governed by the aspiration to accommodate the interests of the child, rather than that of the parents. A distinct expression of this aspiration can be found in a provision of the Swedish Children and Parents code, 6 chapter § 2 a. In this provision it is stated that the best interests of the child shall be the determining factor in all decisions regarding custody, residence and access. Yet another aspiration by the legislative body has been to seek to facilitate the possibilities for parents to decide amongst themselves in questions regarding their child’s custody, residence and access. This aspiration is based on the notion that an agreement between the parents, to a higher degree than a court order, is in better accordance with the best interests of the child. As a result Swedish courts can decree that samarbetssamtal (co-operative counseling) and inomrättslig medling (in-court mediation), shall be initiated - with the purpose to help parents reach an agreement regarding their child’s custody, residency and access.

The aim of this thesis is to compare, discuss and analyse these two forms of conflict settlement, co-operative counseling and in-court mediation. In the thesis a comparison between the two forms of conflict settlement, interviews conducted with mediators and an analysis of the in-court mediation are presented.

In the comparison it is asserted that the two forms of conflict settlement are in many ways similar, particularly regarding their purposes and general areas of application. They differ, however, in a number of aspects. This is so particularly regarding two aspects that can be presumed to have the biggest impact on whether the parents will succeed in reaching an agreement, namely who is leading the settlement discussion sessions, as well as how the sessions are conducted within the framework of each form of conflict settlement.

Through interviews with experienced in-court mediators, it is made clear that the way this form of mediation is conducted varies from mediator to mediator, for example regarding which discussion methods that are used and to which extent the will and best interests of the child are expressed during the mediation.

The picture of the in-court mediation that the thesis presents is divided. On the one hand, it appears to be an effective method when there are grave co-operative difficulties between parents. On the other hand, it seems to have a marginalized standing as conflict settlement-form. The purpose of this mediatory form, to be used in particularly hard cases, however seems to have been fulfilled to some extent. To enable the institute to be strengthened and further developed a number of measures should, nonetheless, be undertaken, which is discussed in the thesis. (Less)
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author
Kraft, Carl LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Co-operative counseling and in-court mediation in cases regarding a child's custody, residency and access.
course
JURM02 20122
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
familjerätt, samarbetssamtal, inomrättslig medling, vårdnad, boende, umgänge
language
Swedish
id
3358758
date added to LUP
2013-01-28 16:01:32
date last changed
2013-01-28 16:01:32
@misc{3358758,
  abstract     = {Swedish family law has long been governed by the aspiration to accommodate the interests of the child, rather than that of the parents. A distinct expression of this aspiration can be found in a provision of the Swedish Children and Parents code, 6 chapter § 2 a. In this provision it is stated that the best interests of the child shall be the determining factor in all decisions regarding custody, residence and access. Yet another aspiration by the legislative body has been to seek to facilitate the possibilities for parents to decide amongst themselves in questions regarding their child’s custody, residence and access. This aspiration is based on the notion that an agreement between the parents, to a higher degree than a court order, is in better accordance with the best interests of the child. As a result Swedish courts can decree that samarbetssamtal (co-operative counseling) and inomrättslig medling (in-court mediation), shall be initiated - with the purpose to help parents reach an agreement regarding their child’s custody, residency and access. 

The aim of this thesis is to compare, discuss and analyse these two forms of conflict settlement, co-operative counseling and in-court mediation. In the thesis a comparison between the two forms of conflict settlement, interviews conducted with mediators and an analysis of the in-court mediation are presented.

In the comparison it is asserted that the two forms of conflict settlement are in many ways similar, particularly regarding their purposes and general areas of application. They differ, however, in a number of aspects. This is so particularly regarding two aspects that can be presumed to have the biggest impact on whether the parents will succeed in reaching an agreement, namely who is leading the settlement discussion sessions, as well as how the sessions are conducted within the framework of each form of conflict settlement.

Through interviews with experienced in-court mediators, it is made clear that the way this form of mediation is conducted varies from mediator to mediator, for example regarding which discussion methods that are used and to which extent the will and best interests of the child are expressed during the mediation.

The picture of the in-court mediation that the thesis presents is divided. On the one hand, it appears to be an effective method when there are grave co-operative difficulties between parents. On the other hand, it seems to have a marginalized standing as conflict settlement-form. The purpose of this mediatory form, to be used in particularly hard cases, however seems to have been fulfilled to some extent. To enable the institute to be strengthened and further developed a number of measures should, nonetheless, be undertaken, which is discussed in the thesis.},
  author       = {Kraft, Carl},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,samarbetssamtal,inomrättslig medling,vårdnad,boende,umgänge},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Samarbetssamtal och inomrättslig medling i mål om vårdnad, boende och umgänge},
  year         = {2012},
}