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Barnets bästa och barnets vilja – särskilt om vårdnad, boende och umgänge

Sunar, Bella LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Begreppet barnets bästa är inte något nytt begrepp inom den svenska familjerätten. Det är ett begrepp som med tiden har mognat och blivit allt mer anpassat till barnets behov. I denna uppsats ges till en början en historisk återblick kring barnets bästa och en inblick i hur utvecklingen har sett ut i den svenska rätten. Den tar också fasta på den nuvarande lagstiftningen för barnets bästa och barnets vilja i både svensk och utländsk rätt. Utgångspunkten med detta examensarbete har alltså varit barnets bästa och barnets vilja och hur dessa på främsta sätt tillvaratas för barn som befinner sig i en situation då det handlar om boende, vårdnad och umgänge, särskilt vid föräldrars skilsmässa eller separation. Barnets bästa ska efter ändringar i... (More)
Begreppet barnets bästa är inte något nytt begrepp inom den svenska familjerätten. Det är ett begrepp som med tiden har mognat och blivit allt mer anpassat till barnets behov. I denna uppsats ges till en början en historisk återblick kring barnets bästa och en inblick i hur utvecklingen har sett ut i den svenska rätten. Den tar också fasta på den nuvarande lagstiftningen för barnets bästa och barnets vilja i både svensk och utländsk rätt. Utgångspunkten med detta examensarbete har alltså varit barnets bästa och barnets vilja och hur dessa på främsta sätt tillvaratas för barn som befinner sig i en situation då det handlar om boende, vårdnad och umgänge, särskilt vid föräldrars skilsmässa eller separation. Barnets bästa ska efter ändringar i vårdnadsreglerna år 2006 vara avgörande för alla beslut om vårdnad, boende och umgänge. Detta framkommer i föräldrabalkens 6 kap. 2 a §.

Principen om barnets bästa är viktig för barnlagstiftningen och finns både i svensk och internationell rätt. Ett problem är att barnets bästa inte är lätt att definiera. Principen säger att man i bedömningen ska beakta barnets behov av en nära och god kontakt med bägge föräldrarna. Det innebär att det, i vårdnadsfrågor, är gemensam vårdnad som är den lämpligaste vårdnadsformen. Denna bedömning måste dock alltid ske individuellt eftersom alla fall skiljer sig från varandra. Det finns många situationer där den enda lösningen för att tillgodose barnet en trygg miljö är ensam vårdnad. I detta arbete har jag valt att se närmare på hur barnets bästa tillämpas i rätten och hur rätten resonerar för vad som egentligen är bäst för barnet. Utöver detta har jag även valt att titta närmare på barnets egen vilja och hur barnet kan göra sig hörd eftersom det är viktigt då det handlar om dess framtid.

Principen om barnets bästa kommer till uttryck i FN:s barnkonvention, artikel 3, där det stadgas att barnets bästa ska komma i främsta rummet i alla frågor som rör barn. En viktig del av principen barnets bästa är rätten för barn att få komma till tals i domstolsförfaranden och att barnets åsikter tillmäts betydelse efter ålder och mognad. Principen om barnets rätt att få sina åsikter hörda kommer till uttryck i FN:s barnkonvention artikel 12. I svensk rätt uttrycks detta i föräldrabalken 6 kap. 19 §, 5 st. I svensk rätt har det riktats en del kritik över att domstolarna många gånger inte redovisar barnets vilja i domstolens domar och att, när det väl redovisas, många gånger inte följs. Därmed bör kanske ett införande av en talerätt för barn göras. Diskussion om detta har förts i bland annat SOU 1987:7 där utredningen konstaterade att en talerätt för barn skulle stärka barnets position i mål om vårdnad och umgänge som rör dess person. Barnet skulle enligt utredningen också få rätt till ett offentligt biträde som skulle biträda barnet genom processen. I den analytiska delen av uppsatsen förs ett resonemang om att man kan spegla två olika perspektiv för ett införande av talerätt för barn. Dels rör det sig om att barnet bör vara delaktigt i processen som rör frågor där barnet själv är inblandat och dels om att barnet ska skyddas i processen och inte bli involverad i föräldrarnas tvistemål. Slutligen konstateras att det bättre överensstämmer med principen om barnets bästa och principen om barnets rätt att få komma till tals om barnet får en talerätt och därmed samma rättsliga ställning som sina föräldrar. (Less)
Abstract
The term the best interest of the child is not a new concept in the Swedish family law. It is a concept that has developed with time and become more and more adapted to the child's needs. In this paper is initially given a retrospective about the best interests of the child and an insight into how the development has been in the Swedish law. It also takes note of the current legislation for the best interests of the child and the child's will in both Swedish and foreign law. The starting point of this thesis has thus been the best interest of the child and the child's will and how these concepts are being applied on children in cases regarding custody, residence and contact, especially when parents divorce or separate. The child's best... (More)
The term the best interest of the child is not a new concept in the Swedish family law. It is a concept that has developed with time and become more and more adapted to the child's needs. In this paper is initially given a retrospective about the best interests of the child and an insight into how the development has been in the Swedish law. It also takes note of the current legislation for the best interests of the child and the child's will in both Swedish and foreign law. The starting point of this thesis has thus been the best interest of the child and the child's will and how these concepts are being applied on children in cases regarding custody, residence and contact, especially when parents divorce or separate. The child's best interests are, after changes in the custody rules in 2006, decisive in all decisions on matters concerning custody, residence and contact. This is found in The Children and Parents' Code, 6th chapter 2 a §.

The principle of the child's best interests is important for the legislation and is available in both Swedish and international law. One issue is that the child's best interests are not easy to define. The principle says that the assessment should take into account the child's need for a close and good contact with both parents. This means that, in custody matters, joint custody is the most appropriate custody form. This assessment must always be done individually, as all cases are different from each other. There are many situations where the only solution, to give the child a safe environment, is sole custody. In this paper, I have chosen to study how the best interests of the child is applied in the law and how the court discusses what really is the best for the child. In addition, I have chosen to study the child's own will and how the child can be heard as it is important when it comes to its future.

The principle of the child's best interests, expressed in the UNCRC article 3, stipulates that the child's best interests must be a primary consideration in all matters affecting the child. An important aspect of the principle of the child's best interests is the child's right to be heard in judicial proceedings, and that the child's views are given due weight according to age and maturity. The principle of the child's right to have its opinions heard is expressed in the UNCRC, article 12. In Swedish law, this is expressed in The Children and Parents' Code, 6th chapter 19 §, 5th Para. In Swedish law, there has been some criticism that the courts often do not report the child's will in court judgments and that, once reported, it is often not followed. Thus, an introduction of procedural rights for children should perhaps be made. A discussion of this has been made, for instance in Swedish Government Official Reports 1987:7, where the inquiry found that procedural rights for children would strengthen the child's position in cases concerning custody and access. The child would, according to the inquiry, also have the right to a legal assistant which would assist the child through the process. In the analytical part of the essay follows a discussion regarding two different perspectives of the introduction of procedural rights for children. Firstly, it is about the child being involved in the process relating to matters where the child itself is involved and secondly, about the child being protected in the process and not getting involved in the parents' dispute. Finally it gets concluded that the principle of the child's best interests and the principle of the child's right to be heard correspond better if the child gets procedural rights and thus, the same legal status as its parents. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Sunar, Bella LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The child's best interest and the child's will - especially concerning custody, residence and contact
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt Barnets bästa Barnets vilja Vårdnad, boende och umgänge
language
Swedish
id
3563584
date added to LUP
2013-03-22 18:08:43
date last changed
2013-03-25 06:45:07
@misc{3563584,
  abstract     = {The term the best interest of the child is not a new concept in the Swedish family law. It is a concept that has developed with time and become more and more adapted to the child's needs. In this paper is initially given a retrospective about the best interests of the child and an insight into how the development has been in the Swedish law. It also takes note of the current legislation for the best interests of the child and the child's will in both Swedish and foreign law. The starting point of this thesis has thus been the best interest of the child and the child's will and how these concepts are being applied on children in cases regarding custody, residence and contact, especially when parents divorce or separate. The child's best interests are, after changes in the custody rules in 2006, decisive in all decisions on matters concerning custody, residence and contact. This is found in The Children and Parents' Code, 6th chapter 2 a §.

The principle of the child's best interests is important for the legislation and is available in both Swedish and international law. One issue is that the child's best interests are not easy to define. The principle says that the assessment should take into account the child's need for a close and good contact with both parents. This means that, in custody matters, joint custody is the most appropriate custody form. This assessment must always be done individually, as all cases are different from each other. There are many situations where the only solution, to give the child a safe environment, is sole custody. In this paper, I have chosen to study how the best interests of the child is applied in the law and how the court discusses what really is the best for the child. In addition, I have chosen to study the child's own will and how the child can be heard as it is important when it comes to its future. 

The principle of the child's best interests, expressed in the UNCRC article 3, stipulates that the child's best interests must be a primary consideration in all matters affecting the child. An important aspect of the principle of the child's best interests is the child's right to be heard in judicial proceedings, and that the child's views are given due weight according to age and maturity. The principle of the child's right to have its opinions heard is expressed in the UNCRC, article 12. In Swedish law, this is expressed in The Children and Parents' Code, 6th chapter 19 §, 5th Para. In Swedish law, there has been some criticism that the courts often do not report the child's will in court judgments and that, once reported, it is often not followed. Thus, an introduction of procedural rights for children should perhaps be made. A discussion of this has been made, for instance in Swedish Government Official Reports 1987:7, where the inquiry found that procedural rights for children would strengthen the child's position in cases concerning custody and access. The child would, according to the inquiry, also have the right to a legal assistant which would assist the child through the process. In the analytical part of the essay follows a discussion regarding two different perspectives of the introduction of procedural rights for children. Firstly, it is about the child being involved in the process relating to matters where the child itself is involved and secondly, about the child being protected in the process and not getting involved in the parents' dispute. Finally it gets concluded that the principle of the child's best interests and the principle of the child's right to be heard correspond better if the child gets procedural rights and thus, the same legal status as its parents.},
  author       = {Sunar, Bella},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt Barnets bästa Barnets vilja Vårdnad,boende och umgänge},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Barnets bästa och barnets vilja – särskilt om vårdnad, boende och umgänge},
  year         = {2013},
}