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Lönediskriminering i förhållande till ålder - En utredning av rättsläget

Hero, Jakob LU (2013) HARH16 20122
Department of Business Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats behandlar lönediskriminering i förhållande till den relativt nya diskrimineringsgrunden ålder. Detta är två företeelser som studerats var för sig i relativt stor omfattning men som inte har ställts i relation till varandra särskilt ofta. Därför har jag till stora delar varit tvungen att studera fenomenen var för sig för att sedan försöka koppla samman dem mot slutet för att kunna besvara frågeställningen.

Vi går idag mot en alltmer individuell lönesättning där det i större utsträckning än tidigare är möjligt för arbetsgivaren att bestämma arbetstagarens lön. Samtidigt så finns det delar av nationell och EU-rättslig lagstiftning som säger att det inte är tillåtet att göra skillnad på olika arbetstagare avseende just... (More)
Denna uppsats behandlar lönediskriminering i förhållande till den relativt nya diskrimineringsgrunden ålder. Detta är två företeelser som studerats var för sig i relativt stor omfattning men som inte har ställts i relation till varandra särskilt ofta. Därför har jag till stora delar varit tvungen att studera fenomenen var för sig för att sedan försöka koppla samman dem mot slutet för att kunna besvara frågeställningen.

Vi går idag mot en alltmer individuell lönesättning där det i större utsträckning än tidigare är möjligt för arbetsgivaren att bestämma arbetstagarens lön. Samtidigt så finns det delar av nationell och EU-rättslig lagstiftning som säger att det inte är tillåtet att göra skillnad på olika arbetstagare avseende just lönesättning. Detta kan vara diskriminerande om någon av diskrimineringsgrunderna är uppfyllda. Uppsatsens syfte är därför att utreda hur lönesättning förhåller sig till diskrimineringsgrunden ålder. Tämligen omgående står det klart att ålder är lite speciellt och behovet av undantag är betydligt större i förhållande till övriga diskrimineringsgrunder. Var gränsen mellan ett berättigat undantag och diskriminering går får i de flesta fall utrönas med hjälp av proportionalitetsprincipen. Detta innebär i praktiken att det på förhand kan vara svårt att veta om en olik behandling av två arbetstagare avseende ålder är åldersdiskriminerande eller ej. Behovet av att studera förarbeten och rättsfall i en ambition att skönja en gräns för när undantag kan göras har därför varit nödvändigt. Huvudregeln är självklart att diskriminering på grund av ålder är otillåten men den kan i vissa fall vara befogad när det finns ett berättigat syfte och den vidtagna åtgärden kan anses vara lämplig och nödvändig för att uppnå detta syfte. Vad som är ett berättigat syfte kan delvis skifta mellan olika länder och över tid men arbetsmarknads- och sysselsättningspolitiska åtgärder har typiskt sett utgjort ett berättigat syfte, men de har inte alltid setts som lämpliga och nödvändiga, i den bemärkelsen har det varit svårare att argumentera för att behandla två personer olika baserat på ålder.

Att endast premiera ålder i sig självt vid lönesättning har inte skett i någon större utsträckning men vad som däremot använts och som i de flesta fall korrelerar med ålder och därför skulle kunna utgöra indirekt diskriminering är anställningstid. Det tycks enligt både svensk domstol och EU-domstol vara så att anställningstid får premieras då det i regel innebär att arbetstagaren blir bättre på att utföra sina arbetsuppgifter. För en del tjänster kan dock en sådan koppling mellan erfarenhet och ökad skicklighet vara svagare eller rent av obefintlig. Det ankommer på arbetsgivaren att bevisa att det finns ett samband mellan erfarenhet och ökad skicklighet för den specifika tjänsten. Detta innebär således att om arbetsgivaren inte kan styrka att erfarenhet, som fås genom anställningstid gör arbetstagaren skickligare så ska inte anställningstid användas som lönesättande kriterium. Hur denna bevisning ska gå till eller vad som kan klassificeras som en ökning av skickligheten nämns av förståliga skäl inte, då detta i praktiken måste vara svårt att fastställa.

Den mer generella slutsatsen är att det finns mängder av potentiella lönediskrimineringssituationer avseende ålder men att dessa skillnader är svåra att härleda till att de endast skulle bero på just ålder. Denna bevissvårighet i kombination med en inställning att det jämnar ut sig över tid är enligt mig bidragande orsaker till att dessa mål inte drivs/ kommer drivas i någon större utsträckning. (Less)
Abstract
This paper discusses wage discrimination in relation to the relatively new ground of age discrimination. These are two phenomena that have been studied individually to a relatively large extent, but which has not been set in relation to each other very often. Therefore, I have been forced to study the phenomena separately and then try to link them together at the end to answer the research questions.

Today,we are moving towards a more individual wage setting compared to before. Nowadays there is a greater possibility for the employer to determine the employee's salary. At the same time there are parts of national and EU legislation which states that you as an employer are not allowed to discriminate employees with regard to wage... (More)
This paper discusses wage discrimination in relation to the relatively new ground of age discrimination. These are two phenomena that have been studied individually to a relatively large extent, but which has not been set in relation to each other very often. Therefore, I have been forced to study the phenomena separately and then try to link them together at the end to answer the research questions.

Today,we are moving towards a more individual wage setting compared to before. Nowadays there is a greater possibility for the employer to determine the employee's salary. At the same time there are parts of national and EU legislation which states that you as an employer are not allowed to discriminate employees with regard to wage setting. This may be discrimination if grounds of discrimination are met.The purpose of this study is to investigate how wage setting relates to discrimination due to age. Almost immediately it becomes clear that age is a bit special and the need for exceptions is much larger compared to other grounds of discrimination Where the boundary between a legitimate exception and discrimination exist, can in many situations be ascertained by using the principle of proportionality. This means in practice that it can be difficult to know in advance if a different treatment of two employees with regard to age is age discriminatory. The need to study the preliminary work and case law in an ambition to discern a limit on when exceptions can be made has been necessary The general rule is obviously that discrimination on grounds of age is illegal, but it can in some cases be justified when there is a legitimate purpose and the action that is been taken can be considered to be appropriate and necessary to achieve that purpose. What a legitimate purpose is, can partly shift between countries and over time, but actions made on the labor market with e.g. the ambition to lower the unemployment rate have typically been seen as a legitimate purpose, but they have not always been seen as appropriate and necessary. In that sense, it has been more difficult to argue to treat two people differently based on age.

To only reward age itself when salaries are being set, have not happened to any great extent but what is more common and in many cases correlates with age and therefore could constitute indirect discrimination is time of employment. It seems, according to both Swedish court and the European Court of Justice that time of employment may be rewarded as it generally means that the employees will be better able to perform their job. For some jobs however, such a link between experience and greater skills are weaker or even non-existent. It is for the employer to prove that there is a correlation between experience and enhanced skills for the specific job. This means that if the employer cannot prove that the experience obtained through employment makes the employee more skilled, then the employer should not use time of employment as wage-setting criterion. How this should be proved and what can be classified as an increase in skills is for obvious reasons not mentioned, as it must in practice be difficult to establish.

The more general conclusion is that there are lots of potential wage discrimination cases with regard to age, but these differences in wages are difficult to deduce that they would only be due to just age. This evidence difficulty combined with an attitude that it evens out over time is to me contributing causes that these cases are not driven / will not be driven to any greater extent.

Keywords: Age discrimination, wage setting, the principle of proportionality, the employment equality directive, the principle of equality, wage discrimination (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Hero, Jakob LU
supervisor
organization
course
HARH16 20122
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
proportionalitetsprincipen, lönesättning, Åldersdiskriminering, arbetslivsdirektivet, likabehandlingsprincipen, lönediskriminering
language
Swedish
id
3732708
date added to LUP
2013-05-08 16:14:34
date last changed
2013-05-08 16:14:34
@misc{3732708,
  abstract     = {This paper discusses wage discrimination in relation to the relatively new ground of age discrimination. These are two phenomena that have been studied individually to a relatively large extent, but which has not been set in relation to each other very often. Therefore, I have been forced to study the phenomena separately and then try to link them together at the end to answer the research questions.

Today,we are moving towards a more individual wage setting compared to before. Nowadays there is a greater possibility for the employer to determine the employee's salary. At the same time there are parts of national and EU legislation which states that you as an employer are not allowed to discriminate employees with regard to wage setting. This may be discrimination if grounds of discrimination are met.The purpose of this study is to investigate how wage setting relates to discrimination due to age. Almost immediately it becomes clear that age is a bit special and the need for exceptions is much larger compared to other grounds of discrimination Where the boundary between a legitimate exception and discrimination exist, can in many situations be ascertained by using the principle of proportionality. This means in practice that it can be difficult to know in advance if a different treatment of two employees with regard to age is age discriminatory. The need to study the preliminary work and case law in an ambition to discern a limit on when exceptions can be made has been necessary The general rule is obviously that discrimination on grounds of age is illegal, but it can in some cases be justified when there is a legitimate purpose and the action that is been taken can be considered to be appropriate and necessary to achieve that purpose. What a legitimate purpose is, can partly shift between countries and over time, but actions made on the labor market with e.g. the ambition to lower the unemployment rate have typically been seen as a legitimate purpose, but they have not always been seen as appropriate and necessary. In that sense, it has been more difficult to argue to treat two people differently based on age. 

To only reward age itself when salaries are being set, have not happened to any great extent but what is more common and in many cases correlates with age and therefore could constitute indirect discrimination is time of employment. It seems, according to both Swedish court and the European Court of Justice that time of employment may be rewarded as it generally means that the employees will be better able to perform their job. For some jobs however, such a link between experience and greater skills are weaker or even non-existent. It is for the employer to prove that there is a correlation between experience and enhanced skills for the specific job. This means that if the employer cannot prove that the experience obtained through employment makes the employee more skilled, then the employer should not use time of employment as wage-setting criterion. How this should be proved and what can be classified as an increase in skills is for obvious reasons not mentioned, as it must in practice be difficult to establish. 

The more general conclusion is that there are lots of potential wage discrimination cases with regard to age, but these differences in wages are difficult to deduce that they would only be due to just age. This evidence difficulty combined with an attitude that it evens out over time is to me contributing causes that these cases are not driven / will not be driven to any greater extent.

Keywords: Age discrimination, wage setting, the principle of proportionality, the employment equality directive, the principle of equality, wage discrimination},
  author       = {Hero, Jakob},
  keyword      = {proportionalitetsprincipen,lönesättning,Åldersdiskriminering,arbetslivsdirektivet,likabehandlingsprincipen,lönediskriminering},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Lönediskriminering i förhållande till ålder - En utredning av rättsläget},
  year         = {2013},
}