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Sedvänja som förutsättning för ställningsfullmakt - ett ändamålsenligt rekvisit?

Bogren, Emilie LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I 10 § 2 st. AvtL regleras en vanlig och i praktiken viktig fullmaktsform, nämligen ställningsfullmakten. Paragrafen ska läsas tillsammans med 10 § 1 st., 11 § 1 st., och 15 § AvtL men de rekvisit som är karakteristiska för just ställningsfullmakten är att mellanmannen i följd av ett avtal med huvudmannen, ska inneha en ställning som ger mellanmannen viss behörighet att rättshandla för huvudmannens räkning. Vad mellanmannen kan göra, d.v.s. behörighetens gränser, följer vidare enligt lagrummet av lag eller sedvänja. Syftet med ställningsfullmaktsinstitutet är enligt motiven till AvtL att trygga omsättningens intresse genom att tredje man inte ska behöva efterforska huruvida det föreligger inskränkningar i mellanmannens behörighet vid varje... (More)
I 10 § 2 st. AvtL regleras en vanlig och i praktiken viktig fullmaktsform, nämligen ställningsfullmakten. Paragrafen ska läsas tillsammans med 10 § 1 st., 11 § 1 st., och 15 § AvtL men de rekvisit som är karakteristiska för just ställningsfullmakten är att mellanmannen i följd av ett avtal med huvudmannen, ska inneha en ställning som ger mellanmannen viss behörighet att rättshandla för huvudmannens räkning. Vad mellanmannen kan göra, d.v.s. behörighetens gränser, följer vidare enligt lagrummet av lag eller sedvänja. Syftet med ställningsfullmaktsinstitutet är enligt motiven till AvtL att trygga omsättningens intresse genom att tredje man inte ska behöva efterforska huruvida det föreligger inskränkningar i mellanmannens behörighet vid varje transaktion.

Det faktum att sedvänja är en förutsättning för att bestämma en mellanmans behörighet enligt ställningsfullmakten är förknippat med vissa tillämpningsproblem. Den här uppsatsen ämnar utreda begreppet sedvänja samt hur tillämpningen i praxis rörande ställningsfullmakt har utvecklats. Fördelar och nackdelar med rekvisitet diskuteras och i analysdelen besvaras uppsatsens frågeställning om sedvänja är ett ändamålsenligt rekvisit för bedömningen av behörighetens gränser enligt 10 § 2 st. AvtL.

Utöver de i AvtL reglerade fullmakterna har det i praxis och doktrin utvecklats nya fullmaktsformer, även kallade särskilda ställningsfullmakter, som utgörs av tolerans- och kombinationsfullmakten. Utgångspunkten är rekvisiten i 10 § 2 st. AvtL med den stora skillnaden att bristen på sedvänja kan läkas med andra omständigheter. En liknande utveckling har även skett i våra grannländer Danmark och Norge vars avtalslagar innehåller samma lagrum som den svenska AvtL. I internationell s.k. soft law finns inte någon direkt motsvarighet till ställningsfullmakten utan istället används uttrycklig och underförstådd fullmakt samt s.k. apparent authority. Dessa liknar till stora delar ställningsfullmaktsinstitutet, men med vissa skillnader som tas upp i uppsatsen.

Konklusionen är att sedvänja som förutsättning för ställningsfullmakten inte är optimalt för dess ändamål. Vad som gör rekvisitet svårtillämpat är bl.a. bevisfrågor rörande en sedvänjas faktiska existens, omfattning och innehåll samt det faktum att det idag verkar allt svårare för en sedvänja att utvecklas. På ett teoretiskt plan kan kritik därmed riktas mot formuleringen av lagtexten i 10 § 2 st. AvtL. I praktiken verkar dock inte rekvisitet sedvänja vara ett problem genom de särskilda fullmakter som utvecklats och fortsätter att utvecklas i praxis. Uppsatsen avslutas med en diskussion om ställningsfullmaktens roll i ett de lege ferenda- perspektiv. (Less)
Abstract
The “position of authority” (ställningsfullmakt) is amongst the most common and perhaps one of the most important types of power of attorney. The regulation is found in section 10 paragraph 2 of the Swedish Contracts Act 1915 (SCA) and states: “A person who, being employed in the service of another party or otherwise as a result of an agreement with another party, occupies a position which, according to law or custom, confers certain authority to act on behalf of the other party, shall be deemed to be authorised to perform such legal acts as fall within the scope of such authority”.

According to the travaux préparatoires of the SCA, the purpose behind the position of authority is inter alia to secure the functioning of the market given... (More)
The “position of authority” (ställningsfullmakt) is amongst the most common and perhaps one of the most important types of power of attorney. The regulation is found in section 10 paragraph 2 of the Swedish Contracts Act 1915 (SCA) and states: “A person who, being employed in the service of another party or otherwise as a result of an agreement with another party, occupies a position which, according to law or custom, confers certain authority to act on behalf of the other party, shall be deemed to be authorised to perform such legal acts as fall within the scope of such authority”.

According to the travaux préparatoires of the SCA, the purpose behind the position of authority is inter alia to secure the functioning of the market given that third parties, in good faith, should be able to rely on the position of the agent without examination into whether there are restrictions in the scope of the agent’s authority or not.

It must be noted that the reference to ‘custom’ in the SCA is associated with certain application problems. This thesis intends to scrutinise the concept of ‘custom’ and how the application of this condition has developed in the Swedish courts, particularly with regards to position of authority. The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether the prerequisite of ‘custom’ in section 10 paragraph 2 of the SCA is appropriate for the purpose of determining the scope of the deemed authorisation.

Over the years, new forms of the original position of authority have developed in the courts of Sweden. Instead of deciding an agent’s authority according to a certain ‘custom’, other factors have been taken into account such as the principal’s passivity alone, or the principal’s passivity in combination with other circumstances which jointly have given the third party the impression that the agent is performing within the scope of his authority. A similar development has occurred in Denmark and Norway where contract laws contain the same statutes as the SCA. It should be noted that in international soft law there is no direct equivalent to the position of authority. According to these principles an agent can have explicit, implicit or apparent authority to act in the principal’s name. This is akin to the position of the authority-institute, but with some differences which are to be addressed in this thesis.

The overriding conclusion of this thesis is that ‘custom’ as a prerequisite for the position of authority, is inappropriate, in certain circumstances, for its purpose. The areas which are particularly problematic concern inter alia evidence in terms of actual existence of a ‘custom’ and also evidence regarding the scope and content of a certain ‘custom’. Another reason is that ‘customs’ rarely develop in modern businesses and organisations therefore raising doubt over the level of its appropriateness. At a theoretical level, criticism can be directed towards the formulation of the text within section 10 paragraph 2 of the SCA. In practice, however, these problems have been solved through the new types of power of attorney which continue to evolve in modern legal practice. This thesis ends with a discussion of the position of authority from a de lege ferenda perspective. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Bogren, Emilie LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
‘Custom’ as a prerequisite for position of authority - an appropriate criterion?
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Avtalsrätt
language
Swedish
id
3799854
date added to LUP
2013-06-05 09:06:07
date last changed
2013-06-05 09:06:07
@misc{3799854,
  abstract     = {The “position of authority” (ställningsfullmakt) is amongst the most common and perhaps one of the most important types of power of attorney. The regulation is found in section 10 paragraph 2 of the Swedish Contracts Act 1915 (SCA) and states: “A person who, being employed in the service of another party or otherwise as a result of an agreement with another party, occupies a position which, according to law or custom, confers certain authority to act on behalf of the other party, shall be deemed to be authorised to perform such legal acts as fall within the scope of such authority”. 

According to the travaux préparatoires of the SCA, the purpose behind the position of authority is inter alia to secure the functioning of the market given that third parties, in good faith, should be able to rely on the position of the agent without examination into whether there are restrictions in the scope of the agent’s authority or not. 

It must be noted that the reference to ‘custom’ in the SCA is associated with certain application problems. This thesis intends to scrutinise the concept of ‘custom’ and how the application of this condition has developed in the Swedish courts, particularly with regards to position of authority. The purpose of this thesis is to examine whether the prerequisite of ‘custom’ in section 10 paragraph 2 of the SCA is appropriate for the purpose of determining the scope of the deemed authorisation. 

Over the years, new forms of the original position of authority have developed in the courts of Sweden. Instead of deciding an agent’s authority according to a certain ‘custom’, other factors have been taken into account such as the principal’s passivity alone, or the principal’s passivity in combination with other circumstances which jointly have given the third party the impression that the agent is performing within the scope of his authority. A similar development has occurred in Denmark and Norway where contract laws contain the same statutes as the SCA. It should be noted that in international soft law there is no direct equivalent to the position of authority. According to these principles an agent can have explicit, implicit or apparent authority to act in the principal’s name. This is akin to the position of the authority-institute, but with some differences which are to be addressed in this thesis.

The overriding conclusion of this thesis is that ‘custom’ as a prerequisite for the position of authority, is inappropriate, in certain circumstances, for its purpose. The areas which are particularly problematic concern inter alia evidence in terms of actual existence of a ‘custom’ and also evidence regarding the scope and content of a certain ‘custom’. Another reason is that ‘customs’ rarely develop in modern businesses and organisations therefore raising doubt over the level of its appropriateness. At a theoretical level, criticism can be directed towards the formulation of the text within section 10 paragraph 2 of the SCA. In practice, however, these problems have been solved through the new types of power of attorney which continue to evolve in modern legal practice. This thesis ends with a discussion of the position of authority from a de lege ferenda perspective.},
  author       = {Bogren, Emilie},
  keyword      = {Avtalsrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Sedvänja som förutsättning för ställningsfullmakt - ett ändamålsenligt rekvisit?},
  year         = {2013},
}