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Frihetsberövande påföljder för unga lagöverträdare – vart går gränsen mellan fängelse och sluten ungdomsvård i svensk rätt?

Alnervik, Anna LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I svensk rätt kan unga lagöverträdare mellan femton och arton år frihetsberövas om det finns synnerliga skäl till det. De påföljder som står till buds är då antingen sluten ungdomsvård eller fängelse – ensamt eller i kombination med skyddstillsyn. Vilken frihetsberövande påföljd som en ung lagöverträdare ska dömas till kan vid en första anblick anses vara klart och tydligt reglerat i svensk lag. Primärt ska den unge dömas till sluten ungdomsvård, men om det finns skäl som talar emot det på grund av den tilltalades ålder eller annan omständighet kan den unge i stället dömas till fängelse. Domstolarnas rättstillämpning av undantaget – fängelse – leder dock till en del frågor rörande frihetsberövande påföljder för unga.

När sluten... (More)
I svensk rätt kan unga lagöverträdare mellan femton och arton år frihetsberövas om det finns synnerliga skäl till det. De påföljder som står till buds är då antingen sluten ungdomsvård eller fängelse – ensamt eller i kombination med skyddstillsyn. Vilken frihetsberövande påföljd som en ung lagöverträdare ska dömas till kan vid en första anblick anses vara klart och tydligt reglerat i svensk lag. Primärt ska den unge dömas till sluten ungdomsvård, men om det finns skäl som talar emot det på grund av den tilltalades ålder eller annan omständighet kan den unge i stället dömas till fängelse. Domstolarnas rättstillämpning av undantaget – fängelse – leder dock till en del frågor rörande frihetsberövande påföljder för unga.

När sluten ungdomsvård infördes år 1999 var det ett resultat av en lång period av arbete. I ett historiskt perspektiv började unga särbehandlas straffrättsligt i slutet av 1800-talet och sedan dess har olika typer av påföljder varit aktuella. En stor influens på området för unga har varit behandlingstanken, vilken är en individualpreventiv straffteori som innebär att man ska se till den unges person för att avgöra vilken påföljd som är lämplig i det konkreta fallet. Behandlingstanken har dock utsatts för kritik utifrån de grundläggande principerna i svensk straffrätt, till exempel proportionalitetsprincipen, legalitetsprincipen och humanitetsprincipen.

Sluten ungdomsvård infördes för att en kombination av de grundläggande straffrättsliga principerna och synen på den unges behov av behandling samtidigt skulle kunna utgöra grund för bestraffning av unga lagöverträdare. Genom införandet av sluten ungdomsvård sattes brottet i fokus för påföljdsbestämningen, vilket anses vara en förutsättning för att påföljdsbestämningen ska vara rättssäker. Den unges vårdbehov tillgodoses också, men först vid verkställigheten av påföljden.

När sluten ungdomsvård infördes var tanken att unga i princip inte skulle kunna komma att dömas till fängelse i svensk rätt. Fängelsepåföljden skulle finnas kvar för speciella fall, men sluten ungdomsvård var avsedd att användas som huvudregel. Genom de få undantag som finns i lag och som leder till att unga kan dömas till fängelse samt genom den tillämpning av fängelse som domstolarna har valt att använda sig av, har dock unga dömts till fängelse i en hel del fall sedan sluten ungdomsvård infördes.

I denna uppsats diskuteras de frihetsberövande påföljderna för unga i svensk rätt. Detta görs utifrån dels ett rättsdogmatiskt, dels ett rättrealistiskt, och dels ett rättssocialistiskt perspektiv. Uppsatsen utgår dessutom från ett teleologiskt, ett komparativt och ett historiskt perspektiv. Slutsatsen i uppsatsen är att hur gränsen mellan de olika frihetsberövande påföljderna för unga – fängelse och sluten ungdomsvård – ska dras enligt lag och förarbeten inte är i överensstämmelse med den gräns som ställs upp i den praktiska rättstillämpningen. Uppsatsen diskuterar därför om det finns skäl för förändringar i antingen den skrivna lagen eller i domstolarnas sätt att tillämpa den för att syftet med bestämmelserna ska uppnås. Diskussionen förs utifrån reglernas ordalydelse, men också – och kanske framför allt – med utgångspunkt i det syfte som reglerna är upprättade utifrån. (Less)
Abstract
In Swedish law it is possible to make a deprivation of liberty for juvenile offenders between 15 and 18 years old in case of extraordinary reasons. The available custodial sentences are institutional care of young people and imprisonment – imprisonment could also be combined with probation. Which custodial sentence the court will use for the juvenile offender seems at first sight to be clear in Swedish law. The primary sanction is institutional care of young people, but if there is a reason not to use that sanction due to the age of the defendant or any other circumstance, the court could use imprisonment instead. The adjudication of the exception – imprisonment – leads to a lot of questions according custodial sentences for young people.
... (More)
In Swedish law it is possible to make a deprivation of liberty for juvenile offenders between 15 and 18 years old in case of extraordinary reasons. The available custodial sentences are institutional care of young people and imprisonment – imprisonment could also be combined with probation. Which custodial sentence the court will use for the juvenile offender seems at first sight to be clear in Swedish law. The primary sanction is institutional care of young people, but if there is a reason not to use that sanction due to the age of the defendant or any other circumstance, the court could use imprisonment instead. The adjudication of the exception – imprisonment – leads to a lot of questions according custodial sentences for young people.

When institutional care of young people passed as a law in year of 1999 it was a result of a long time of work. In a historical perspective the special treatment of young people in Sweden started in the end of the 19th century and since that, there has been different sanctions to choose between. An influence in this area of law has been the thought of treatment, which is an individual contraceptive penalty theory meaning that the juvenile offender is in focus when the court is going to determine which sanction is the most suitable. The thought of treatment has although been criticised in comparison to the fundamental principles of Swedish law, for example the principle of proportionality, the principle of legality and the principle of humanity.

Institutional care of young people as a law is a result of a combination of the fundamental principles of penal law and the juvenile offenders need of treatment. Together these two things should be the foundation of the punishment of young offenders. Through the adoption of institutional care of young people, the crime started to be in focus when the court was going to decide which sanction to use. This is a presumption in compliance with the rule of law. The juvenile offenders need of treatment is although still satisfied in Swedish law, but now only by the execution of the sentence.

When institutional care of young people passed as a law, the meaning was that the court basically wouldn’t be able to put young offenders in prison. Imprisonment was although still part of Swedish law to be used in extraordinary cases – institutional care of juvenile offenders was although intended to be the principal rule. Through the few exceptions in Swedish law that makes it possible for the court to put young offenders in prison, and through the application of imprisonment made by the courts, it seems like imprisonment has been used for young people more than it was intended to when the institutional care was established in Swedish law.

This essay discusses the custodial sentences for young offenders in Swedish law. The discussion is made out of different perspectives, among others from a historical and a comparative perspective. The conclusion is that where to draw the line between the different custodial sentences for juvenile offenders is not very clear in Swedish law. The application of law doesn’t seem to correspond to the written law. Because of this the essay discusses if there is any reason to change the law or to change how the court apply the law to make the aim and purpose of the sanctions be as distinct as possible. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Alnervik, Anna LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Custodial sentences regarding juvenile offenders - where is the border between imprisonment and institutional care of young people in Swedish law?
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, unga lagöverträdare, sluten ungdomsvård, fängelse, frihetsberövande påföljd
language
Swedish
id
3800568
date added to LUP
2013-06-17 06:57:52
date last changed
2013-06-17 06:57:52
@misc{3800568,
  abstract     = {In Swedish law it is possible to make a deprivation of liberty for juvenile offenders between 15 and 18 years old in case of extraordinary reasons. The available custodial sentences are institutional care of young people and imprisonment – imprisonment could also be combined with probation. Which custodial sentence the court will use for the juvenile offender seems at first sight to be clear in Swedish law. The primary sanction is institutional care of young people, but if there is a reason not to use that sanction due to the age of the defendant or any other circumstance, the court could use imprisonment instead. The adjudication of the exception – imprisonment – leads to a lot of questions according custodial sentences for young people.

When institutional care of young people passed as a law in year of 1999 it was a result of a long time of work. In a historical perspective the special treatment of young people in Sweden started in the end of the 19th century and since that, there has been different sanctions to choose between. An influence in this area of law has been the thought of treatment, which is an individual contraceptive penalty theory meaning that the juvenile offender is in focus when the court is going to determine which sanction is the most suitable. The thought of treatment has although been criticised in comparison to the fundamental principles of Swedish law, for example the principle of proportionality, the principle of legality and the principle of humanity.

Institutional care of young people as a law is a result of a combination of the fundamental principles of penal law and the juvenile offenders need of treatment. Together these two things should be the foundation of the punishment of young offenders. Through the adoption of institutional care of young people, the crime started to be in focus when the court was going to decide which sanction to use. This is a presumption in compliance with the rule of law. The juvenile offenders need of treatment is although still satisfied in Swedish law, but now only by the execution of the sentence.

When institutional care of young people passed as a law, the meaning was that the court basically wouldn’t be able to put young offenders in prison. Imprisonment was although still part of Swedish law to be used in extraordinary cases – institutional care of juvenile offenders was although intended to be the principal rule. Through the few exceptions in Swedish law that makes it possible for the court to put young offenders in prison, and through the application of imprisonment made by the courts, it seems like imprisonment has been used for young people more than it was intended to when the institutional care was established in Swedish law.

This essay discusses the custodial sentences for young offenders in Swedish law. The discussion is made out of different perspectives, among others from a historical and a comparative perspective. The conclusion is that where to draw the line between the different custodial sentences for juvenile offenders is not very clear in Swedish law. The application of law doesn’t seem to correspond to the written law. Because of this the essay discusses if there is any reason to change the law or to change how the court apply the law to make the aim and purpose of the sanctions be as distinct as possible.},
  author       = {Alnervik, Anna},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,unga lagöverträdare,sluten ungdomsvård,fängelse,frihetsberövande påföljd},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Frihetsberövande påföljder för unga lagöverträdare – vart går gränsen mellan fängelse och sluten ungdomsvård i svensk rätt?},
  year         = {2013},
}