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Den myndighetsgemensamma satsningen mot grov organiserad brottslighet ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv

Ramklint, Johan LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Bilden av Sverige som ett land utan grov organiserad brottslighet har successivt kommit att förändras. Grov organiserad brottslighet är inte längre något som svenskarna enbart associerar med södra Italien och Francis Ford Coppolas kultförklarade film Gudfadern. Som en del av denna utveckling inleddes under 2007 regeringens mobilisering mot grov organiserad brottslighet, vilken i huvudsak har kommit att innebära två saker. För det första grundlades ett omfattande myndighetssamarbete i syfte att effektivisera brottsbekämpningen och för det andra betonades vikten av den tillgångsinriktade brottsbekämpningen.

Den myndighetsgemensamma satsningen är det mest omfattande myndighetssamarbetet i svensk kriminalhistoria. Den grova organiserade... (More)
Bilden av Sverige som ett land utan grov organiserad brottslighet har successivt kommit att förändras. Grov organiserad brottslighet är inte längre något som svenskarna enbart associerar med södra Italien och Francis Ford Coppolas kultförklarade film Gudfadern. Som en del av denna utveckling inleddes under 2007 regeringens mobilisering mot grov organiserad brottslighet, vilken i huvudsak har kommit att innebära två saker. För det första grundlades ett omfattande myndighetssamarbete i syfte att effektivisera brottsbekämpningen och för det andra betonades vikten av den tillgångsinriktade brottsbekämpningen.

Den myndighetsgemensamma satsningen är det mest omfattande myndighetssamarbetet i svensk kriminalhistoria. Den grova organiserade brottsligheten är mångfacetterad och det krävs därför ett multidisciplinärt angreppssätt för att bekämpa den. Det åligger vidare den som vill genomföra en reform att motivera den utifrån kraven på nödvändighet, proportionalitet och effektivitet. Jag anser att regeringen har brustit när det gäller att motivera satsningen, då avsaknaden av en problematisering kring intresset av rättssäkerhet är total. Jag har identifierat ett antal situationer där en rättsosäkerhet kan uppkomma. Det kan därvid konstateras att det finns risker med myndighetssamarbetet, men om dessa uppoffringar är värda sitt pris går inte att svara på, då det saknas empirisk kunskap om brottslighetens omfattning. Diskussionen gällande intresseavvägningen mellan rättssäkerhet kontra effektivitet blir således låst och något definitivt svar kan inte ges.

Den tillgångsinriktade brottsbekämpningen är en nygammal företeelse på så vis att utredningsverktygen i huvudsak är gamla, men intresset för dem är nytt. Den grundläggande tanken med denna strategi är att ta bort brottslingarnas incitament att begå brott, dvs. möjligheten att berika sig. En förutsättning för en framgångsrik tillgångsinriktad brottsbekämpning är dock att det finns ändamålsenliga verktyg. Om denna strategi ska bli intressant för myndigheterna så måste lagstiftaren göra verktygen mer attraktiva för de som ska använda dem. Min bedömning är att de verktyg som finns är i behov av vissa justeringar och i synnerhet förverkandeinstitutet. Jag menar att det nyligen tillkomna utvidgade förverkandet inte är tillräckligt effektivt. Istället förespråkar jag ett förverkande i kombination med en omvänd bevisbörda. Den omvända bevisbördan skulle endast bli aktuell då det ställs bortom rimligt tvivel att en gärningsperson har begått ett brott, som är av sådan beskaffenheten att det kan ge ett utbyte. Detta ger gemene man en betryggande rättssäkerhet, samtidigt som förfarandet ökar effektiviteten i brottsbekämpningen och avskräcker andra kriminella från att begå brott. I och med att den grova organiserade brottsligheten är föränderlig måste lagstiftaren och brottsbekämparna alltid vara vaksamma på utvecklingen. För närvarande utreder regeringen hur det utvidgade förverkandet har fungerat hittills. Detta finner jag positivt och jag väntar med spänning på hur denna utvärdering kommer att falla ut. Om inte det utvidgade förverkandet har varit till regeringens belåtenhet, vilket jag misstänker, är det inte alltför osannolikt att vi inom en snar framtid kommer att se förändringar i syfte att öka effektiviteten. Enligt min mening har de brottsbekämpande myndigheterna arbetat alltför kortsiktigt med den grova organiserade brottsligheten. För att det övergripande målet med både den myndighetsgemensamma satsningen och den tillgångsinriktade brottsbekämpningen ska kunna uppnås, krävs det att myndigheterna börjar arbeta mer långsiktigt. I detta sammanhang tror jag den tillgångsinriktade brottsbekämpningen och i synnerhet det utvidgade förverkandet kommer att spela en nyckelroll genom att göra det mindre intressant att begå denna typ av brottslighet.

Jag ser med spänning fram emot den fortsatta utvecklingen. Min förhoppning är att den myndighetsgemensamma satsningen fortsätter att problematiseras mot bakgrund av rättssäkerhetsintresset och att lagstiftaren efter utredningen om det utvidgade förverkandet, tar tillvara på den brottsförebyggande potential som den tillgångsinriktade brottsbekämpningen besitter. (Less)
Abstract
The self-image of Sweden as a country without organized crime has gradually been changing. Organized crime is no longer something that the Swedes associate with southern Italy or Francis Ford Coppola’s cult film The Godfather. In 2007, the Swedish government initiated a mobilization against organized crime, which in essence came to mean two things. Firstly, the government founded an extensive cooperation between authorities to streamline law enforcement and secondly, they emphasized the importance of asset-oriented law enforcement.

This so-called authority's joint venture is the largest and most extensive cooperation between authorities in Swedish criminal history. The organized crime is diverse and therefore it requires a... (More)
The self-image of Sweden as a country without organized crime has gradually been changing. Organized crime is no longer something that the Swedes associate with southern Italy or Francis Ford Coppola’s cult film The Godfather. In 2007, the Swedish government initiated a mobilization against organized crime, which in essence came to mean two things. Firstly, the government founded an extensive cooperation between authorities to streamline law enforcement and secondly, they emphasized the importance of asset-oriented law enforcement.

This so-called authority's joint venture is the largest and most extensive cooperation between authorities in Swedish criminal history. The organized crime is diverse and therefore it requires a multidisciplinary approach. If the government wants to implement a reform they have to justify it in the light of the requirements of necessity, proportionality and effectiveness. In my opinion the government has failed in its justification of the joint venture, due to the lack of a discussion regarding the effects on the rule of law. I have identified a number of situations where the joint venture and the rule of law may collide. We can thus state that there are risks with the joint venture, but whether or not these risks are worth taken cannot be answered due to the lack of knowledge about the extent of the crime.

The asset-oriented law enforcement is an old-school phenomenon in the sense that investigation tools are mainly old, but interest in them is new. The basic idea of this strategy is to remove the criminal’s incentive to commit crime, or in other words, their assets. A prerequisite for successful asset-oriented law enforcement is that there are effective tools. To make this strategy interesting for the authorities, the government must make the tools more attractive to those who have to use them. My assessment is that the tools are in need of some adjustments and particularly the rules for forfeiture of property. I believe that the newly created extended forfeiture of property is not efficient enough. Instead, I advocate a forfeiture of property in combination with a reverse burden of proof. The extended forfeiture of property only is applicable when it’s beyond reasonable doubt that an offender has committed a crime, which is of such nature that it can provide the offender with a gain of his or her crime. This gives the common man reassuring security since the extended forfeiture of property can only be used against convicted criminals at the same time as the approach increases the efficiency of law enforcement and deters other criminals from committing similar crimes.

Since organized crime is constantly changing, the legislator and crime-fighters always have to be vigilant on developments of the crime. Currently, the government is investigating how expedient and efficient the extended forfeiture of property has been so far. I find this development very positive and I’m really looking forward to seeing the results of this evaluation. Unless the extended forfeiture of property has been to the governments liking, it is not too unlikely that we soon will be seeing changes in order to increase the efficiency. In my opinion, the law enforcement agencies have been working too short term with the investigation of organized crime. To meet the overall objective of both the authority's joint venture and the asset-oriented law enforcement the authorities have to begin to work more long term. In this context, I believe the asset-oriented law enforcement and in particular the extended forfeiture of property will play a key role, by making it less attractive to commit these types of crimes.

I eagerly look forward to future developments. My hope is that the authority's joint venture continues to problematize the light of the rule of lawmaking and that the legislature, after the investigation of the extended forfeiture of property, becomes more aware of the crime prevention potential that the asset-oriented law enforcement possesses. (Less)
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author
Ramklint, Johan LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The authority's joint venture against organized crime in the light of the rule of law
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, grov organiserad brottslighet, tillgångsinriktad brottsbekämpning, förverkande, rättssäkerhet, den myndighetsgemensamma satsningen mot grov organiserad brottslighet.
language
Swedish
id
3800639
date added to LUP
2013-06-13 15:40:48
date last changed
2013-06-13 15:40:48
@misc{3800639,
  abstract     = {The self-image of Sweden as a country without organized crime has gradually been changing. Organized crime is no longer something that the Swedes associate with southern Italy or Francis Ford Coppola’s cult film The Godfather. In 2007, the Swedish government initiated a mobilization against organized crime, which in essence came to mean two things. Firstly, the government founded an extensive cooperation between authorities to streamline law enforcement and secondly, they emphasized the importance of asset-oriented law enforcement.

This so-called authority's joint venture is the largest and most extensive cooperation between authorities in Swedish criminal history. The organized crime is diverse and therefore it requires a multidisciplinary approach. If the government wants to implement a reform they have to justify it in the light of the requirements of necessity, proportionality and effectiveness. In my opinion the government has failed in its justification of the joint venture, due to the lack of a discussion regarding the effects on the rule of law. I have identified a number of situations where the joint venture and the rule of law may collide. We can thus state that there are risks with the joint venture, but whether or not these risks are worth taken cannot be answered due to the lack of knowledge about the extent of the crime. 

The asset-oriented law enforcement is an old-school phenomenon in the sense that investigation tools are mainly old, but interest in them is new. The basic idea of this strategy is to remove the criminal’s incentive to commit crime, or in other words, their assets. A prerequisite for successful asset-oriented law enforcement is that there are effective tools. To make this strategy interesting for the authorities, the government must make the tools more attractive to those who have to use them. My assessment is that the tools are in need of some adjustments and particularly the rules for forfeiture of property. I believe that the newly created extended forfeiture of property is not efficient enough. Instead, I advocate a forfeiture of property in combination with a reverse burden of proof. The extended forfeiture of property only is applicable when it’s beyond reasonable doubt that an offender has committed a crime, which is of such nature that it can provide the offender with a gain of his or her crime. This gives the common man reassuring security since the extended forfeiture of property can only be used against convicted criminals at the same time as the approach increases the efficiency of law enforcement and deters other criminals from committing similar crimes.

Since organized crime is constantly changing, the legislator and crime-fighters always have to be vigilant on developments of the crime. Currently, the government is investigating how expedient and efficient the extended forfeiture of property has been so far. I find this development very positive and I’m really looking forward to seeing the results of this evaluation. Unless the extended forfeiture of property has been to the governments liking, it is not too unlikely that we soon will be seeing changes in order to increase the efficiency. In my opinion, the law enforcement agencies have been working too short term with the investigation of organized crime. To meet the overall objective of both the authority's joint venture and the asset-oriented law enforcement the authorities have to begin to work more long term. In this context, I believe the asset-oriented law enforcement and in particular the extended forfeiture of property will play a key role, by making it less attractive to commit these types of crimes. 

I eagerly look forward to future developments. My hope is that the authority's joint venture continues to problematize the light of the rule of lawmaking and that the legislature, after the investigation of the extended forfeiture of property, becomes more aware of the crime prevention potential that the asset-oriented law enforcement possesses.},
  author       = {Ramklint, Johan},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,grov organiserad brottslighet,tillgångsinriktad brottsbekämpning,förverkande,rättssäkerhet,den myndighetsgemensamma satsningen mot grov organiserad brottslighet.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Den myndighetsgemensamma satsningen mot grov organiserad brottslighet ur ett rättssäkerhetsperspektiv},
  year         = {2013},
}