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En brottsofferinriktad (straff)rättsprocess? - En studie om brottsoffrets roll i straffprocessen ur ett relationsvåldsperspektiv

Lindström, Linnea LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I denna uppsats undersöks brottsoffrets roll i straffprocessen. Syftet med uppsatsen är att klargöra brottsoffrets roll i straffprocessen och undersöka om det finns behov av att förändra brottsoffrets roll och ställning i processen ur ett upprättelse- och relationsvåldsperspektiv. En undersökning utförs om straffprocessens funktioner, grundläggande principer och brottsoffrets rättigheter enligt gällande rätt från förundersökning till dess dom har avkunnats. Genom att studera lagstiftning, statistik, viktimologiskt, empiriskt och rättssociologiskt material undersöks hur kvinnans roll som offer för våld i nära relationer ser ut i straffprocessen ur ett brett perspektiv. De alternativa rättsideologierna Restorative Justice och terapeutisk... (More)
I denna uppsats undersöks brottsoffrets roll i straffprocessen. Syftet med uppsatsen är att klargöra brottsoffrets roll i straffprocessen och undersöka om det finns behov av att förändra brottsoffrets roll och ställning i processen ur ett upprättelse- och relationsvåldsperspektiv. En undersökning utförs om straffprocessens funktioner, grundläggande principer och brottsoffrets rättigheter enligt gällande rätt från förundersökning till dess dom har avkunnats. Genom att studera lagstiftning, statistik, viktimologiskt, empiriskt och rättssociologiskt material undersöks hur kvinnans roll som offer för våld i nära relationer ser ut i straffprocessen ur ett brett perspektiv. De alternativa rättsideologierna Restorative Justice och terapeutisk juridik som utvecklats internationellt undersöks vidare ur ett brottsoffer- och upprättelseperspektiv.

Historiskt sett var brottsoffret ägare till sin egen konflikt och ansvarig för att utkräva vedergällning och hämnd. Successivt övertog statsmakten och åklagaren ansvaret för att utkräva straffansvar och driva processen. På 1970-talet uppmärksammades dock brottsoffret på nytt och har därefter fått stort utrymme i kriminalpolitiken. Utsatta kvinnor och barn har varit de personer som stått i fokus i debatten och lagstiftningsåtgärder har vidtagits för att öka deras skydd och ställning. Internationellt har en debatt om brottsoffers upprättelse även varit central där alternativ till straffprocessen har utvecklats. I Sverige har det anförts att brottsoffret har behållit en stark ställning i straffprocessen och att det ökade brottsofferintresset till och med kan vara direkt farligt för straffrätten.

Denna studie visar att målsäganden har rätt till information, ett målsägandebiträde under vissa förutsättningar, stödpersoner och möjligheter att få skadeståndstalan handlagt i processen enligt gällande rätt. Vidare har målsäganden teoretiskt möjligheter att överta åtalet, biträda åtalet eller överklaga domen till högre rätt. Målsägande har således enligt gällande rätt ganska omfattande rättigheter att faktiskt delta i processen. Empiriska undersökningar visar dock att rättsväsendets bemötande av brottsoffer är bristfälligt och att rättigheterna inte alltid tillämpas som de ska i praktiken. Med beaktande av straffrättens syfte och kriminalpolitiska mål som går ut på att bekämpa brottsligheten och förverkliga rättskyddet som straffrätten ska garantera, går det vidare att utläsa att straffprocessens huvudfunktion fortfarande handlar om att realisera straffhoten i kriminaliseringarna och placera straffansvaret för ett brott hos brottslingen och utdöma de straffpåföljder som finns angivna för detta brott. Detta medför att processen naturligt blir en tvåpartsprocess mellan staten och gärningsmannen där straffet ska utdömas i samhällets intresse. Åklagaren är ansvarig för att föra talan för brott och därigenom ansvarig för brottsoffrets upprättelse. Brottsoffrets roll blir tydlig när våld i nära relationer används som ett exempel. Exemplet visar att kriminaliseringen, åtalsreglerna och rättssäkerhetsgarantierna i straffprocessen såsom beviskrav och oskyldighetspresumtionen påverkar brottsoffrets roll och att kvinnan har en liten möjlighet att påverka processen i praktiken. Trots att våldsutsatta kvinnor inte är en homogen grupp erbjuder straffrätten vidare enbart ett alternativ för dem. Det kan därför ifrågasättas om straffprocessen är det mest ändamålsenliga sätt för denna typ av brottsoffer att få upprättelse på.

Ett förslag på en mer brottsofferinriktad rättsprocess diskuteras där en kombination av den traditionella straffprocessen och tankarna om Restorative Justice och terapeutisk juridik presenteras. För att i större grad tillgodose offer för relationsvålds behov av upprättelse i processen förespråkas att brottsoffret ska få en nyckelposition och möjlighet att påverka den fortsatta handläggningen av processen genom att erbjudas ett medlingsförfarande som bygger på tankarna om Restorative Justice och terapeutisk juridik. Medlingsförfarandet kan vara avsett att fånga in de fall där målsäganden vill fortsätta förhållandet med mannen och inte vill medverka i utredningen. Konfliktlösning, reparation och aktivt deltagande står här i fokus. Om medling inte blir aktuellt ska straffprocessen anpassas så att brottsoffers behov enligt den beteendevetenskapliga forskningen i större grad tillgodoses och de terapeutiska effekterna främjas. Bemötande, deltagande, stöd och skydd ska stå i fokus så att en form av emotionell upprättelse kan åstadkommas så att upprättelse inte blir helt avhängig på fällande dom och ett hårt straff. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis discusses the role and participation of victims in criminal procedures through a domestic violence and restitution perspective. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of victims in criminal procedures and to examine whether there is any need to change victims’ role and position through these perspectives. The aim and functions of the criminal procedure together with its fundamental principles are examined in the paper. The paper also describes victims' rights in the procedure by applicable law from investigation until the verdict has been reached. The role and position of victims of domestic violence within the procedure are examined by looking at legislation, statistics, victimological and empirical and sociological... (More)
This thesis discusses the role and participation of victims in criminal procedures through a domestic violence and restitution perspective. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of victims in criminal procedures and to examine whether there is any need to change victims’ role and position through these perspectives. The aim and functions of the criminal procedure together with its fundamental principles are examined in the paper. The paper also describes victims' rights in the procedure by applicable law from investigation until the verdict has been reached. The role and position of victims of domestic violence within the procedure are examined by looking at legislation, statistics, victimological and empirical and sociological research. Alternative international solutions and ideologies like Restorative Justice and Therapeutic Jurisprudence are also examined through a victim and domestic violence perspective.

Historically victims were responsible for their own conflict and revenge. Nevertheless, the state and prosecutor eventually took over the responsibility of the procedure and determination of a sentence. In the 1970s, victims of crime were noticed again. The victim movement resulted in an increased interest in criminal law policy and legislative changes. Crime against persons, especially vulnerable women and children, has dominated the debate. The possibility of restitution for victims has also been central to the debate and alternative procedures and ideologies have developed internationally. Scholars have been arguing that victims have kept a strong position within the criminal procedure in Sweden, and that the increased interest of victims may be dangerous for criminal law and the procedure.

The paper demonstrates that the injured party has been given extended rights and attention, along with the victim and women movements. In the criminal procedure victims have the right to receive some type of information during the investigation, right to legal counsel under certain conditions, the right to a support person and the possibility of compensation within the same procedure. Furthermore, they have the possibility to take over the prosecution, assist the prosecution and appeal the verdict to higher court if the prosecutor chooses not to. Accordingly, the injured parties have extensive rights to be active in the procedure by applicable law. However, empirical research shows that victims do not get the appropriate personal treatment and that the legal rights are not correctly applied in practice. By studying the aim and functions of the criminal procedure one can argue that its main function is still to implement the threats within the criminalisation, and to place the responsibility of a crime with the offender and impose the penalties that are listed in the crime. Therefore, the criminal procedure is a process between the state/prosecutor and the offender and the penalty shall be imposed in the states interest. The prosecutor is responsible for the procedure and therefore also responsible for victims’ restitution. Consequently, victims are assumed to get restitution by financial compensation and a guilty verdict. The victim’s position becomes clearer when domestic violence is used as an example. This example demonstrates that the criminalisation, the prosecution rules and the fundamental principles in the criminal procedure affect the victim's role and that the woman has little opportunity to influence the procedure. Even though victims of domestic violence are not a homogenous group, criminal law only has one solution to offer, one based on the assumption that the woman wants to leave the man. Therefore it is questionable if the criminal procedure is the most adequate way for women to receive restitution.

A suggestion of a more victim-orientated procedure is discussed in the context of domestic violence, where the ideas of Restorative Justice and Therapeutic Jurisprudence are incorporated into the ideas of the traditional criminal procedure. It is argued that the victim should be given a key position and the chance to influence the following procedure by being offered a victim-offender mediation based on the concepts of Restorative Justice and Therapeutic Jurisprudence. The victim-offender mediation can be used to intercept the cases where the women do not want to cooperate in the investigation and where it therefore otherwise must be closed. Central to this procedure is conflict resolution, reparation and active participation. If mediation does not apply, the traditional criminal procedure shall be adapted after the behavioural, social and psychological research so the procedure becomes more therapeutic for the victim. Participation, recognition, support and protection shall contribute so that victims get an emotional restitution in the procedure, regardless of decisions and the verdict. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lindström, Linnea LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
A victim-orientated criminal procedure? - An analysis about victims' position in the criminal procedure through a domestic violence perspective
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
straffrätt, straffprocess, brottsoffer, våld i nära relationer, Restorative Justice, terapeutisk juridik
language
Swedish
id
3800743
date added to LUP
2013-06-13 15:28:59
date last changed
2013-06-13 15:28:59
@misc{3800743,
  abstract     = {This thesis discusses the role and participation of victims in criminal procedures through a domestic violence and restitution perspective. The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of victims in criminal procedures and to examine whether there is any need to change victims’ role and position through these perspectives. The aim and functions of the criminal procedure together with its fundamental principles are examined in the paper. The paper also describes victims' rights in the procedure by applicable law from investigation until the verdict has been reached. The role and position of victims of domestic violence within the procedure are examined by looking at legislation, statistics, victimological and empirical and sociological research. Alternative international solutions and ideologies like Restorative Justice and Therapeutic Jurisprudence are also examined through a victim and domestic violence perspective. 

Historically victims were responsible for their own conflict and revenge. Nevertheless, the state and prosecutor eventually took over the responsibility of the procedure and determination of a sentence. In the 1970s, victims of crime were noticed again. The victim movement resulted in an increased interest in criminal law policy and legislative changes. Crime against persons, especially vulnerable women and children, has dominated the debate. The possibility of restitution for victims has also been central to the debate and alternative procedures and ideologies have developed internationally. Scholars have been arguing that victims have kept a strong position within the criminal procedure in Sweden, and that the increased interest of victims may be dangerous for criminal law and the procedure.

The paper demonstrates that the injured party has been given extended rights and attention, along with the victim and women movements. In the criminal procedure victims have the right to receive some type of information during the investigation, right to legal counsel under certain conditions, the right to a support person and the possibility of compensation within the same procedure. Furthermore, they have the possibility to take over the prosecution, assist the prosecution and appeal the verdict to higher court if the prosecutor chooses not to. Accordingly, the injured parties have extensive rights to be active in the procedure by applicable law. However, empirical research shows that victims do not get the appropriate personal treatment and that the legal rights are not correctly applied in practice. By studying the aim and functions of the criminal procedure one can argue that its main function is still to implement the threats within the criminalisation, and to place the responsibility of a crime with the offender and impose the penalties that are listed in the crime. Therefore, the criminal procedure is a process between the state/prosecutor and the offender and the penalty shall be imposed in the states interest. The prosecutor is responsible for the procedure and therefore also responsible for victims’ restitution. Consequently, victims are assumed to get restitution by financial compensation and a guilty verdict. The victim’s position becomes clearer when domestic violence is used as an example. This example demonstrates that the criminalisation, the prosecution rules and the fundamental principles in the criminal procedure affect the victim's role and that the woman has little opportunity to influence the procedure. Even though victims of domestic violence are not a homogenous group, criminal law only has one solution to offer, one based on the assumption that the woman wants to leave the man. Therefore it is questionable if the criminal procedure is the most adequate way for women to receive restitution.

A suggestion of a more victim-orientated procedure is discussed in the context of domestic violence, where the ideas of Restorative Justice and Therapeutic Jurisprudence are incorporated into the ideas of the traditional criminal procedure. It is argued that the victim should be given a key position and the chance to influence the following procedure by being offered a victim-offender mediation based on the concepts of Restorative Justice and Therapeutic Jurisprudence. The victim-offender mediation can be used to intercept the cases where the women do not want to cooperate in the investigation and where it therefore otherwise must be closed. Central to this procedure is conflict resolution, reparation and active participation. If mediation does not apply, the traditional criminal procedure shall be adapted after the behavioural, social and psychological research so the procedure becomes more therapeutic for the victim. Participation, recognition, support and protection shall contribute so that victims get an emotional restitution in the procedure, regardless of decisions and the verdict.},
  author       = {Lindström, Linnea},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,straffprocess,brottsoffer,våld i nära relationer,Restorative Justice,terapeutisk juridik},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {En brottsofferinriktad (straff)rättsprocess? - En studie om brottsoffrets roll i straffprocessen ur ett relationsvåldsperspektiv},
  year         = {2013},
}