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Brottsoffrets roll i straffrätten - En kritisk studie av den svenska straffrätten ur ett brottsofferperspektiv

Klarin, Martin LU (2013) LAGF03 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Brottsoffret har sedan det introducerades som ett begrepp på 1970-talet allt mer kommit att dominera den politiska och akademiska debatten kring brott och straff. Mitt syfte med den här uppsatsen är att ur ett kritiskt perspektiv granska den svenska straffrätten ur ett brottsofferperspektiv.
Vem är brottsoffret? Det finns ingen övergripande definition av vem brottsoffret är. En fråga som därför uppkommer är vem som ska vara i centrum för lagstiftning som riktar sig till brottsoffret. Nils Christie har genom att lansera begreppet ”det idealiska brottsoffret” tagit upp problematiken. Den vi ofta har i åtanke när vi tänker på brottsoffret är det svaga, utsatta offret som är i behov av vår hjälp.
Under de senaste decennierna har en... (More)
Brottsoffret har sedan det introducerades som ett begrepp på 1970-talet allt mer kommit att dominera den politiska och akademiska debatten kring brott och straff. Mitt syfte med den här uppsatsen är att ur ett kritiskt perspektiv granska den svenska straffrätten ur ett brottsofferperspektiv.
Vem är brottsoffret? Det finns ingen övergripande definition av vem brottsoffret är. En fråga som därför uppkommer är vem som ska vara i centrum för lagstiftning som riktar sig till brottsoffret. Nils Christie har genom att lansera begreppet ”det idealiska brottsoffret” tagit upp problematiken. Den vi ofta har i åtanke när vi tänker på brottsoffret är det svaga, utsatta offret som är i behov av vår hjälp.
Under de senaste decennierna har en explosionsartad utveckling av lagstiftning som sätter brottsoffret i centrum ägt rum. En välgenomtänkt uppdelning som Henrik Tham gör och som jag har använt mig av i den här uppsatsen är mellan lagstiftning som riktar sig till enskilda grupper av brottsoffer och lagstiftning som riktar sig till brottsoffer i allmänhet.
Hur man bäst anlägger ett brottsofferperspektiv inom straffrätten råder det delade meningar om. Monica Burman föreslår att utgångspunkten bör vara att brottsoffret ska få chansen till upprättelse. Förespråkare för den reparativa juridiken hävdar att rättsprocessen måste föras tillbaka till parterna, brottsoffret måste därmed få en starkare ställning i förfarandena under rättsprocessen. Den terapeutiska juridiken gör gällande att man bäst tar hänsyn till brottsoffret genom att föra in mer beteendevetenskapliga discipliner i juridiken. Per Ole Träskman står för mer traditionell syn på brottsoffret, han menar brottsoffret har tillåtits att ta för mycket plats. Enligt Träskman är rättegången på väg att bli en privat konflikt mellan brottsoffret och gärningsmannen.
Mycket av den lagstiftning som har skett under de senaste 10-20 åren har riktat sig till enskilda grupper av brottsoffer. Jag tror att utvecklingen behöver gå mot mer lagstiftning som riktar sig till brottsoffer i allmänhet. Jag tycker att brottsoffret behöver en tydligare roll under själva rättsprocessen, alla brottsoffer har rätt att känna att det man har blivit utsatt för blir taget på allvar. Jag håller dock inte med förespråkare för den reparativa rättvisan om att vi helt bör föra tillbaka processen till parterna. Det skulle strida mot hela vår straffrättsideologi om rättvis proportionalitet. Jag tror också att vi som jurister måste bli bättre på att föra in mer beteendevetenskapliga discipliner i vårt juridiska tänkande. (Less)
Abstract
The term “crime victim” was introduced in the Swedish language in the 1970s. Since then it has more and more started to dominate the political and academic debate about crime and punishment. My aim with this essay is to from a critical point of view, review the Swedish criminal law from a crime victim-perspective.
Who is the crime victim? There is no overall definition of who can qualify as a crime victim. One question that arises from this fact is who the legislation should be targeting. Nils Christie has by introducing the concept of “the ideal victim” raised awareness about the problem. The one we often have in mind when we think of the crime victim is the weak, vulnerable victim that is in need of our help.
Under the recent... (More)
The term “crime victim” was introduced in the Swedish language in the 1970s. Since then it has more and more started to dominate the political and academic debate about crime and punishment. My aim with this essay is to from a critical point of view, review the Swedish criminal law from a crime victim-perspective.
Who is the crime victim? There is no overall definition of who can qualify as a crime victim. One question that arises from this fact is who the legislation should be targeting. Nils Christie has by introducing the concept of “the ideal victim” raised awareness about the problem. The one we often have in mind when we think of the crime victim is the weak, vulnerable victim that is in need of our help.
Under the recent decades there has been an explosion in the development of legislation that puts the crime victim in the spotlight. A well thought out sectioning of the legislation, which is done by Henrik Tham, and that I have used in this essay, is legislation aimed at particular groups of crime victims, and legislation aimed at crime victims in general.
There are divided opinions about how one best takes the crime victim-perspective into consideration in criminal law. Monica Burman proposes that the starting point should be that the crime victim should have the chance to vindication. Proponents for the restorative justice claim that the legal process must be returned to the parties, the crime victims must therefore get a stronger position in the proceedings during the legal process. The therapeutic jurisprudence maintains that the best way to take account of the crime victim is by bringing in more behavioral disciplines into the legal thinking. Per Ole Träskman represents a more traditional view of the crime victim, he believes the crime victim has been allowed to take up too much space. According to Träskman the trial is on its way to become a private dispute between the victim and the offender.
Much of the legislation that has taken place over the last 10-20 years has been aimed at particular groups of crime victims. I believe that the development needs to move towards more legislation aimed at the crime victims in general. I think that the crime victim needs a clearer role in the legal process, all crime victims are entitled to feel that what they have been exposed to are being taken seriously. However, I do not agree with advocates of restorative justice that we should completely return the process to the parties. It would go against our entire criminal justice ideology of fair proportionality. I also think that we as jurists need to bring in more behavioral disciplines into our legal thinking. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Klarin, Martin LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20131
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, brottsoffer, offerlösa brott, viktimologi, brottsofferperspektiv, det idealiska brottsoffret
language
Swedish
id
3800777
date added to LUP
2013-09-11 14:17:26
date last changed
2013-09-11 14:17:26
@misc{3800777,
  abstract     = {The term “crime victim” was introduced in the Swedish language in the 1970s. Since then it has more and more started to dominate the political and academic debate about crime and punishment. My aim with this essay is to from a critical point of view, review the Swedish criminal law from a crime victim-perspective. 
 Who is the crime victim? There is no overall definition of who can qualify as a crime victim. One question that arises from this fact is who the legislation should be targeting. Nils Christie has by introducing the concept of “the ideal victim” raised awareness about the problem. The one we often have in mind when we think of the crime victim is the weak, vulnerable victim that is in need of our help.
 Under the recent decades there has been an explosion in the development of legislation that puts the crime victim in the spotlight. A well thought out sectioning of the legislation, which is done by Henrik Tham, and that I have used in this essay, is legislation aimed at particular groups of crime victims, and legislation aimed at crime victims in general.
 There are divided opinions about how one best takes the crime victim-perspective into consideration in criminal law. Monica Burman proposes that the starting point should be that the crime victim should have the chance to vindication. Proponents for the restorative justice claim that the legal process must be returned to the parties, the crime victims must therefore get a stronger position in the proceedings during the legal process. The therapeutic jurisprudence maintains that the best way to take account of the crime victim is by bringing in more behavioral disciplines into the legal thinking. Per Ole Träskman represents a more traditional view of the crime victim, he believes the crime victim has been allowed to take up too much space. According to Träskman the trial is on its way to become a private dispute between the victim and the offender.
 Much of the legislation that has taken place over the last 10-20 years has been aimed at particular groups of crime victims. I believe that the development needs to move towards more legislation aimed at the crime victims in general. I think that the crime victim needs a clearer role in the legal process, all crime victims are entitled to feel that what they have been exposed to are being taken seriously. However, I do not agree with advocates of restorative justice that we should completely return the process to the parties. It would go against our entire criminal justice ideology of fair proportionality. I also think that we as jurists need to bring in more behavioral disciplines into our legal thinking.},
  author       = {Klarin, Martin},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,brottsoffer,offerlösa brott,viktimologi,brottsofferperspektiv,det idealiska brottsoffret},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Brottsoffrets roll i straffrätten - En kritisk studie av den svenska straffrätten ur ett brottsofferperspektiv},
  year         = {2013},
}