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Miljöriktig hantering av exporterat avfall enligt EU:s avfallstransportförordning

Andersson, Sigrid LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Under de senaste 10 åren har ökningen av export från EU av farligt och ”ofarligt” avfall varit betydande. Rapporter visar att en övervägande del av EU:s el-avfall och elektroniska avfall exporteras till Asien och Afrika. ”Ofarligt” avfall, såsom plast och papper, transporteras främst till Asien och i synnerhet till Kina. I dessa länder finns emellertid ofta inte kapaciteten och tekniken att hantera avfallet på ett säkert sätt, vilket leder till miljöförstöring och risker för människors hälsa.

Inom EU regleras avfall som transporteras över gränserna i en avfallstransportförordning, vilken föreskriver en kontroll för att avfall som exporteras från EU inte ska ske till en anläggning där avfallet inte kommer att tas omhand på ett... (More)
Under de senaste 10 åren har ökningen av export från EU av farligt och ”ofarligt” avfall varit betydande. Rapporter visar att en övervägande del av EU:s el-avfall och elektroniska avfall exporteras till Asien och Afrika. ”Ofarligt” avfall, såsom plast och papper, transporteras främst till Asien och i synnerhet till Kina. I dessa länder finns emellertid ofta inte kapaciteten och tekniken att hantera avfallet på ett säkert sätt, vilket leder till miljöförstöring och risker för människors hälsa.

Inom EU regleras avfall som transporteras över gränserna i en avfallstransportförordning, vilken föreskriver en kontroll för att avfall som exporteras från EU inte ska ske till en anläggning där avfallet inte kommer att tas omhand på ett miljöriktigt sätt. Denna kontroll innebär att en exporterande stat är skyldig att kräva att exporterat avfall hanteras på ett miljöriktigt sätt i den importerande staten. Om den exporterande staten har anledning att tro att miljöriktig hantering av avfallet inte kan garanteras, är den exporterande staten skyldig att förbjuda export. Uppsatsen undersöker denna skyldighet hos exporterande stater; vad skyldigheten innebär och om en sådan kontroll uppfyller sitt syfte att garantera att avfall som lämnar EU hanteras på ett miljöriktigt sätt. För detta ändamål görs även en undersökning av hur kontrollen genomförs i praktiken, hos myndigheter i EU:s medlemsstater i allmänhet och i Sverige i synnerhet.

I uppsatsen dras slutsatsen att kontrollen av miljöriktig hantering är mindre långtgående än den först ger sken av och att den begränsas av det faktum att den aktivitet som kontrolleras av den exporterande staten befinner sig inom en annan stats jurisdiktion. Miljöriktig hantering är ett vagt och flytande begrepp, vilket är omöjligt att helt verifiera i en importerande stat. I realiteten får kontrollen av miljöriktig hantering ses som en variant av försiktighetsprincipen. En definition i tre punkter för vad exportstaten måste försäkra sig om i kontrollen om miljöriktig hantering framarbetas i uppsatsen. I undersökningen av myndigheternas tillämpning framkommer att medan en del myndigheter inte gör någon kontroll alls, försäkrar sig de flesta myndigheter endast om en punkt i denna definition. Därmed konstateras att EU:s myndigheter i allmänhet inte till fullo gör vad som åligger dem i kontrollen av miljöriktig hantering enligt EU:s avfallstranportförordning, samt att tillämpningen av kontrollen skiljer sig avsevärt åt mellan olika myndigheter. I uppsatsen slås dessutom fast att majoriteten av myndigheterna inte kontrollerar miljöriktig hantering för ”ofarligt”, s.k. informationspliktigt avfall. Såsom exportförfarandet ser ut för sådant slags avfall i avfallstransportförordningen är det svårt, om ens möjligt, att väga in bedömningen av miljöriktig hantering. (Less)
Abstract
Over the last 10 years exports from the EU of hazardous and ”non - hazardous” waste have increased significantly. Reports indicate that the majority of EU's electric and electronic waste is being exported to Asia and Africa. "Non-hazardous" waste, including plastic and paper waste, is being exported mainly to Asia and to China in particular. These countries, however, very often lack the capacities and technologies to take care of such waste in a safe manner, leading to environmental degradation and risks for human health.

In the EU, cross-border movements of waste are regulated in the Waste Shipment Regulation, which provides for a control of waste exported from the EU not to end up in a facility, where the waste will not be managed in... (More)
Over the last 10 years exports from the EU of hazardous and ”non - hazardous” waste have increased significantly. Reports indicate that the majority of EU's electric and electronic waste is being exported to Asia and Africa. "Non-hazardous" waste, including plastic and paper waste, is being exported mainly to Asia and to China in particular. These countries, however, very often lack the capacities and technologies to take care of such waste in a safe manner, leading to environmental degradation and risks for human health.

In the EU, cross-border movements of waste are regulated in the Waste Shipment Regulation, which provides for a control of waste exported from the EU not to end up in a facility, where the waste will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner. This control means that an exporting state shall require that exported waste will be managed in an environmentally sound manner in the importing state. If the exporting state has reason to believe that the environmentally sound management of waste cannot be ensured, the exporting state must prohibit the export in question. The paper examines this obligation of exporting states; what the obligation comprises and whether such a control meets its objective of ensuring environmentally sound management of waste exported from the EU. For this purpose the paper also investigates how the control is conducted in practice by the authorities of the EU Member States in general and Sweden in particular.

The conclusion that is drawn in the paper is that the control of environmentally sound management is less far-reaching than it first appears and that it is limited by the fact that the activity to be controlled by the exporting state is under the jurisdiction of another state. Environmentally sound management is a vague term, which is impossible to fully verify in an importing state. The control of environmentally sound management can basically be seen as a form of the precautionary principle. A definition in three parts of what must be ensured by the authorities in their control of environmentally sound management is elaborated in the paper. The investigation of how the authorities conduct the control shows that while some authorities do not conduct any control at all, most authorities only ensure themselves of one part of the definition. It is therefore established that the authorities of the EU Member States in general do not fully fulfill their obligations of the control of environmentally sound management according to EU’s Waste Shipment Regulation and that the control varies greatly between different authorities. Moreover, the paper concludes that the majority of the authorities do not control the environmentally sound management of “non-hazardous” waste, subject to the information procedure in article 18 of the Waste Shipment Regulation. The nature of this procedure makes it difficult, if not impossible, to make an assessment of environmentally sound management. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Andersson, Sigrid LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Environmentally sound management of waste exported under the EU's Waste Shipment Regulation
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
EU-rätt, Miljörätt, Gränsöverskridande avfallstransporter
language
Swedish
id
3801568
date added to LUP
2013-06-13 15:36:05
date last changed
2013-06-13 15:36:05
@misc{3801568,
  abstract     = {Over the last 10 years exports from the EU of hazardous and ”non - hazardous” waste have increased significantly. Reports indicate that the majority of EU's electric and electronic waste is being exported to Asia and Africa. "Non-hazardous" waste, including plastic and paper waste, is being exported mainly to Asia and to China in particular. These countries, however, very often lack the capacities and technologies to take care of such waste in a safe manner, leading to environmental degradation and risks for human health.

In the EU, cross-border movements of waste are regulated in the Waste Shipment Regulation, which provides for a control of waste exported from the EU not to end up in a facility, where the waste will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner. This control means that an exporting state shall require that exported waste will be managed in an environmentally sound manner in the importing state. If the exporting state has reason to believe that the environmentally sound management of waste cannot be ensured, the exporting state must prohibit the export in question. The paper examines this obligation of exporting states; what the obligation comprises and whether such a control meets its objective of ensuring environmentally sound management of waste exported from the EU. For this purpose the paper also investigates how the control is conducted in practice by the authorities of the EU Member States in general and Sweden in particular.

The conclusion that is drawn in the paper is that the control of environmentally sound management is less far-reaching than it first appears and that it is limited by the fact that the activity to be controlled by the exporting state is under the jurisdiction of another state. Environmentally sound management is a vague term, which is impossible to fully verify in an importing state. The control of environmentally sound management can basically be seen as a form of the precautionary principle. A definition in three parts of what must be ensured by the authorities in their control of environmentally sound management is elaborated in the paper. The investigation of how the authorities conduct the control shows that while some authorities do not conduct any control at all, most authorities only ensure themselves of one part of the definition. It is therefore established that the authorities of the EU Member States in general do not fully fulfill their obligations of the control of environmentally sound management according to EU’s Waste Shipment Regulation and that the control varies greatly between different authorities. Moreover, the paper concludes that the majority of the authorities do not control the environmentally sound management of “non-hazardous” waste, subject to the information procedure in article 18 of the Waste Shipment Regulation. The nature of this procedure makes it difficult, if not impossible, to make an assessment of environmentally sound management.},
  author       = {Andersson, Sigrid},
  keyword      = {EU-rätt,Miljörätt,Gränsöverskridande avfallstransporter},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Miljöriktig hantering av exporterat avfall enligt EU:s avfallstransportförordning},
  year         = {2013},
}