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Svensk narkotikadebatt

Zander, Charlotta LU (2013) LAGF03 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning:
Den svenska narkotikapolitikens utvecklingen har under lång tid hindrats av en brist på debatt och vetenskaplighet. På den internationella arenan börjar man se viss förändring i debattklimatet. Cannabis har legaliserat i två delstater i USA och i Köpenhamn föreslås en försöksverksamhet med legal försäljning av cannabis. Den svenska regeringen är oroad över denna utveckling med en mer tolerant attityd mot cannabisbruk och menar att målet för den svenska narkotikapolitiken även fortsättningsvis ska vara ”nolltolerans mot narkotika”. Under mina studier har det visat sig att det finns starkt stöd i litteraturen för att narkotikabrukare inte kan behandlas som en grupp. En uppdelning måste åtminstone göras mellan de som har ett... (More)
Sammanfattning:
Den svenska narkotikapolitikens utvecklingen har under lång tid hindrats av en brist på debatt och vetenskaplighet. På den internationella arenan börjar man se viss förändring i debattklimatet. Cannabis har legaliserat i två delstater i USA och i Köpenhamn föreslås en försöksverksamhet med legal försäljning av cannabis. Den svenska regeringen är oroad över denna utveckling med en mer tolerant attityd mot cannabisbruk och menar att målet för den svenska narkotikapolitiken även fortsättningsvis ska vara ”nolltolerans mot narkotika”. Under mina studier har det visat sig att det finns starkt stöd i litteraturen för att narkotikabrukare inte kan behandlas som en grupp. En uppdelning måste åtminstone göras mellan de som har ett rekreationsbruk och de som har ett problematiskt bruk. Studierna visade att det finns en stark kritik mot antagandet att rekreationsbruk leder till problematiskt bruk och att graden av tillgängligheten på narkotika är avgörande för hur stora skadorna som uppkommer. Den svenska regeringen verkar däremot inte vara av samma uppfattning.

De tre narkotikakonventioner som FN har utabetat och som tillträtts av majoritet av länderna i världen kräver att konventionsstaterna ska begränsa användningen av narkotika till endast medicinska och vetenskapliga ändamål. Ett antal gärningar ska straffbeläggas, bl.a innehav av narkotika. Bruk av narkotika behöver inte straffbeläggas enligt narkotikakonventionerna. I Sverige har vi sedan 1988 kriminaliserat bruk av narkotika. I förarbeten till lagändringen anfördes att kriminaliseringen främst skulle ha en psykologisk effekt på ungdomar som funderade att testa droger. Som argument mot en kriminalisering framfördes farhågor att förändringen i lagstiftningen skulle resultera i att missbrukare undandrog sig vård av rädsla för att avslöja sitt bruk. Ytterligare argument emot kriminaliseringen var risken att det skulle leda till”hårdare” tag från polisens och skolan sida. Trots att Sveriges politik ofta framställssom lyckad, har Sverige högre narkotikarelaterad dödlighet jämfört med genomsnittet i Europa. Kostnaderna för rättsväsendet är höga, och konsekvenserna av en lagföring för den enskilda kan bli mycket allvarliga. Samtidigt leder det nuvarnade regleringssättet till oavsiktliga kostnaderna för samhället, t.ex. genom att lukerativa svarta marknader för narkotika skapas. Många debatörrer har kritiserat att den svenska politiken fokuserar allt för mycket på kontrollåtgärder riktade mot missbrukarleden istället för vård och behandling. En del debattörer vill istället se en avkriminalisering av narkotikabruk och en politik som mer syftar till att minska skadorna av narkotika än att försöka utrota narkotikan. De flesta debattörer verkar vara överens om att det internationella narkotikapolitiska landskapet håller på att förändras och att det är nödvändigt att vi även i Sverige för en debatt om hur utforminingen av narkotikapolitiken ska vara. (Less)
Abstract
Summary:
The development of Swedish drug policy has for a long time been hampered by a lack of discussion and scientific evidence. On the international arena there is a tendency in change in these attitudes. Cannabis has been legalized in two states in US, and in Copenhagen there has been proposed a trial with legal sale of cannabis. The Swedish government is concerned of this recent development of a more tolerant attitude towards use of cannabis and is determined to keep a zero - tolerance policy towards drug use. During my studies it has become clear to me that there is a strong support in the literature for drug users not being regarded as a homogenous group. A distinction needs at least to be done between those who has a recreational... (More)
Summary:
The development of Swedish drug policy has for a long time been hampered by a lack of discussion and scientific evidence. On the international arena there is a tendency in change in these attitudes. Cannabis has been legalized in two states in US, and in Copenhagen there has been proposed a trial with legal sale of cannabis. The Swedish government is concerned of this recent development of a more tolerant attitude towards use of cannabis and is determined to keep a zero - tolerance policy towards drug use. During my studies it has become clear to me that there is a strong support in the literature for drug users not being regarded as a homogenous group. A distinction needs at least to be done between those who has a recreational use and those who have a problematic use. My study also show that the assumptions made about recreational use leading to problematic use, and the level of availability of narcotics are essential for the size of the damages that will occur, do not have support in the literature. The Swedish government does not support that view.

The three UN Conventions has been signed by the majority of the countries in the world and require the parties to limit the use of narcotics to medical and scientific purpose. The conventionparties are required make surten actions punishible as criminal offences e.g. possession of drugs. Personal consumption of drugs need not to be a criminal offence. Since 1988 personal consumtion of drugs has been a crimnial offence in Sweden. to When personal consumption was made illegal the primary argument that it would mainly have a psychological effect on youth was brought forward. The primary arguments against criminalization was the risk that addicts would hesitate to seek medical treatment due to the risk of revealing their use.. Another argument brought forward was the fear that this change could lead to tougher methods of the police and school system. In spite of the fact the Swedish policy has been described as successful, Sweden has a higher rate of mortality related to narcotics than average in Europe. The costs for the judicial system are high. Instead the conclusion could be made that the unintentional consequences of the current politic is grave. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Zander, Charlotta LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20131
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
language
Swedish
id
3879096
date added to LUP
2014-12-29 16:09:58
date last changed
2014-12-29 16:09:58
@misc{3879096,
  abstract     = {Summary:
The development of Swedish drug policy has for a long time been hampered by a lack of discussion and scientific evidence. On the international arena there is a tendency in change in these attitudes. Cannabis has been legalized in two states in US, and in Copenhagen there has been proposed a trial with legal sale of cannabis. The Swedish government is concerned of this recent development of a more tolerant attitude towards use of cannabis and is determined to keep a zero - tolerance policy towards drug use. During my studies it has become clear to me that there is a strong support in the literature for drug users not being regarded as a homogenous group. A distinction needs at least to be done between those who has a recreational use and those who have a problematic use. My study also show that the assumptions made about recreational use leading to problematic use, and the level of availability of narcotics are essential for the size of the damages that will occur, do not have support in the literature. The Swedish government does not support that view. 

The three UN Conventions has been signed by the majority of the countries in the world and require the parties to limit the use of narcotics to medical and scientific purpose. The conventionparties are required make surten actions punishible as criminal offences e.g. possession of drugs. Personal consumption of drugs need not to be a criminal offence. Since 1988 personal consumtion of drugs has been a crimnial offence in Sweden. to When personal consumption was made illegal the primary argument that it would mainly have a psychological effect on youth was brought forward. The primary arguments against criminalization was the risk that addicts would hesitate to seek medical treatment due to the risk of revealing their use.. Another argument brought forward was the fear that this change could lead to tougher methods of the police and school system. In spite of the fact the Swedish policy has been described as successful, Sweden has a higher rate of mortality related to narcotics than average in Europe. The costs for the judicial system are high. Instead the conclusion could be made that the unintentional consequences of the current politic is grave.},
  author       = {Zander, Charlotta},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Svensk narkotikadebatt},
  year         = {2013},
}