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Public service-TV – i allmänhetens tjänst?

Jarkell, Emma LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Public service eller radio och TV i allmänhetens tjänst kan betraktas som ett alltmer angeläget ämne att studera mot bakgrund av ett föränderligt medieklimat under intensiv konkurrens. Det bildar en central mediepolitisk fråga att balansera på såväl nationell som överstatlig nivå i förhållande till EU-rätten.
I denna uppsats har en nutida förståelse för public service genom TV-sändningarna i allmänhetens tjänst baserats på kunskap om hur public service etablerades och hur dess status därefter har utvecklats under inte helt oproblematiska förhållanden, framförallt under utmaning av ny teknik och effekterna av en liberaliserad TV-sektor. Framställningen belyser ämnet utifrån ett helhetsperspektiv, vilket i huvudsak involverar det... (More)
Public service eller radio och TV i allmänhetens tjänst kan betraktas som ett alltmer angeläget ämne att studera mot bakgrund av ett föränderligt medieklimat under intensiv konkurrens. Det bildar en central mediepolitisk fråga att balansera på såväl nationell som överstatlig nivå i förhållande till EU-rätten.
I denna uppsats har en nutida förståelse för public service genom TV-sändningarna i allmänhetens tjänst baserats på kunskap om hur public service etablerades och hur dess status därefter har utvecklats under inte helt oproblematiska förhållanden, framförallt under utmaning av ny teknik och effekterna av en liberaliserad TV-sektor. Framställningen belyser ämnet utifrån ett helhetsperspektiv, vilket i huvudsak involverar det nationella och EU-rättsliga regelverk som TV-sändningarna i allmänhetens tjänst aktualiserar liksom frågan om hur public service-uppdraget numera förhåller sig till de förändringar som nya medietjänster, nya distributionstekniker för TV-tjänster samt existensen av ett kommersiellt utbud har medfört. Uppsatsen är därmed orienterad efter moment där public service-konceptet har behövt eller annars fått anledning att hävda sig och rättfärdiga sin position. På så vis fokuserar framställningen på att lyfta fram viktiga ställningstaganden som har uttalats i förhållande till public service, samt på uttalanden som bidrar till klargörandet av dess innebörd.
Det framgår att public service-uppdraget, trots grundläggande omstruktureringar inom TV-sektorn, till stor del har behållit sin ursprungliga karaktär. Dess innebörd kan betraktas som förenad med legitimerande samhällsfunktioner, som till exempel att främja demokrati, informationsförmedling, folkbildning, kultur och att säkerställa tillgång till ett programinnehåll av högre kvalitet. Uppdraget i allmänhetens tjänst måste även ses i ljuset av att det också har en funktion vid sidan av den ordinarie programverksamheten, som exempelvis vid höjd beredskap eller vid tillfällen då myndigheter begär tillgång till att sända ut meddelanden vikt för allmänheten.
Väsentliga ställningstaganden i förhållande till public service framgår i anslutning till regelverket för radio- och TV-sändningar. Trots avsaknad av ett specifikt nationellt regelverk för att uppdra TV-sändningarna i allmänhetens tjänst går det att konstatera hur detta till stor del har utformats med hänsyn till lagstiftarens önskan att lämna utrymme åt mediepolitiska avväganden – och public service. Dess prioriterade ställning framgår påtagligt i samband med att tillståndsplikten för sändningar i marknätet utreds. Frågan om TV-sändningarna i allmänhetens tjänst har till och med visat sig vara av sådan vikt att tillståndsfrågan för dessa, tillika frågan om public service-uppdragets utformning, alltjämt är förbehållen riksdagen och regeringen och hänvisad till sådana beslutsformer som påminner om lagstiftningsprocessen.
Den EU-rättsliga tillnärmningen av medlemsstaternas statligt stödda public service-verksamheter har varit av mycket stor vikt för att i slutändan bekräfta deras fortsatta särställning och aktualitet i förhållande till den EU-rättsliga policyn om fri konkurrens på den inre marknaden. Betydelsen av public service erkänns på fördragsnivå genom Amsterdamprotokollet, samt genom en regim som särskilt har utvecklats för att underlätta för uppdraget i allmänhetens tjänst att samexistera med privata aktörer på den inre marknaden. Erkännandet har omfattat medlemsstaternas kompetens att stödja tillhandahållandet av ett brett utformat public service-uppdrag samt även inkluderat verksamhet genom nya typer av medietjänster och distributionsplattformar.
Public service och TV-sändningarna i allmänhetens tjänst kan i denna uppsats konstateras inta en fortsättningsvis respekterad ställning, baserad på den till synes tidlösa samhällsfunktion som public service-uppdraget har tilldelats. (Less)
Abstract
Public service broadcasting can be considered as an increasingly important topic to study in the light of a changing media climate under intense competition. It also represents a central question in media policy to be balanced at a national as well as a supranational level in relation to EU law.
In this thesis, an understanding of public service broadcasting with regard to television is based on knowledge of how it was originally established and how its status since then has developed under precarious conditions, especially given the challenges brought by new technology and the effects of a liberalized TV sector. The concept of public service broadcasting is illustrated from a holistic perspective. This mainly involves the national and... (More)
Public service broadcasting can be considered as an increasingly important topic to study in the light of a changing media climate under intense competition. It also represents a central question in media policy to be balanced at a national as well as a supranational level in relation to EU law.
In this thesis, an understanding of public service broadcasting with regard to television is based on knowledge of how it was originally established and how its status since then has developed under precarious conditions, especially given the challenges brought by new technology and the effects of a liberalized TV sector. The concept of public service broadcasting is illustrated from a holistic perspective. This mainly involves the national and EU legal framework for public service broadcasting and the question of the public service broadcasting remit and its significance in relation to new media services, new technologies for media distribution and the existence of commercial broadcasters. The thesis is thus oriented by such instances when it has been found relevant to justify the position of public service broadcasting or to clarify the significance the public service broadcasting remit.
It appears that the public service broadcasting remit has kept its original characteristics to a large extent, despite the restructuring that has taken place within the broadcasting sector. Its meaning can be examined in terms of legitimizing social functions in society, such as supporting democracy, the dissemination of information, education and culture and guaranteeing access to media content of higher quality. The public service broadcasting remit must also be considered with regard to the fact that it includes functions besides the ordinary broadcasting activity, such as a certain duty in times of increased national emergency preparedness and the responsibility to communicate messages of importance to the public by request of public authorities.
Significant standpoints regarding public service broadcasting can be observed in connection to the regulatory framework for radio and television. Despite the absence of a specific national framework for public service broadcasting, it appears that the existing one to a large extent has been designed in order to allow political considerations – and considerations in favour of public service broadcasting. The given priority to public service broadcasting becomes particularly clear from taking a closer look at the regulation on television broadcast licensing. The importance of the public service broadcasting remit is also demonstrated by the fact that the question of it has been reserved to the considerations of the Swedish Riksdag (parliament) and the Government under a procedure that very much resembles the Swedish legislative process.
The EU approach of the state-aided public service broadcasters has been of an essential importance in order to confirm their unique position in relation to the EU policy on free competition on the internal market. The significance of public service broadcasting is acknowledged by the EU Treaty as expressed by the so-called Amsterdam Protocol, as well as by a regime especially developed in order to encourage the co-existence of the public service broadcasters and other actors on the internal market. The recognition of public service broadcasting under EU law covers the competency of the member states to support a wide definition of the public service broadcasting remit as well as its development through new types of media services and distribution platforms.
In this thesis, public service broadcasting is found to hold a position that is continuously well-respected, based on the observation of the seemingly timeless social functions that have been assigned to it. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Jarkell, Emma LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Public Service Television Broadcasting - of General Interest?
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
medierätt, TV-rätt, offentlig rätt, EU-rätt, public service
language
Swedish
id
3962648
date added to LUP
2013-09-23 08:29:41
date last changed
2013-09-23 08:29:41
@misc{3962648,
  abstract     = {Public service broadcasting can be considered as an increasingly important topic to study in the light of a changing media climate under intense competition. It also represents a central question in media policy to be balanced at a national as well as a supranational level in relation to EU law. 
	In this thesis, an understanding of public service broadcasting with regard to television is based on knowledge of how it was originally established and how its status since then has developed under precarious conditions, especially given the challenges brought by new technology and the effects of a liberalized TV sector. The concept of public service broadcasting is illustrated from a holistic perspective. This mainly involves the national and EU legal framework for public service broadcasting and the question of the public service broadcasting remit and its significance in relation to new media services, new technologies for media distribution and the existence of commercial broadcasters. The thesis is thus oriented by such instances when it has been found relevant to justify the position of public service broadcasting or to clarify the significance the public service broadcasting remit.
	It appears that the public service broadcasting remit has kept its original characteristics to a large extent, despite the restructuring that has taken place within the broadcasting sector. Its meaning can be examined in terms of legitimizing social functions in society, such as supporting democracy, the dissemination of information, education and culture and guaranteeing access to media content of higher quality. The public service broadcasting remit must also be considered with regard to the fact that it includes functions besides the ordinary broadcasting activity, such as a certain duty in times of increased national emergency preparedness and the responsibility to communicate messages of importance to the public by request of public authorities. 
	Significant standpoints regarding public service broadcasting can be observed in connection to the regulatory framework for radio and television. Despite the absence of a specific national framework for public service broadcasting, it appears that the existing one to a large extent has been designed in order to allow political considerations – and considerations in favour of public service broadcasting. The given priority to public service broadcasting becomes particularly clear from taking a closer look at the regulation on television broadcast licensing. The importance of the public service broadcasting remit is also demonstrated by the fact that the question of it has been reserved to the considerations of the Swedish Riksdag (parliament) and the Government under a procedure that very much resembles the Swedish legislative process.
	The EU approach of the state-aided public service broadcasters has been of an essential importance in order to confirm their unique position in relation to the EU policy on free competition on the internal market. The significance of public service broadcasting is acknowledged by the EU Treaty as expressed by the so-called Amsterdam Protocol, as well as by a regime especially developed in order to encourage the co-existence of the public service broadcasters and other actors on the internal market. The recognition of public service broadcasting under EU law covers the competency of the member states to support a wide definition of the public service broadcasting remit as well as its development through new types of media services and distribution platforms.
	In this thesis, public service broadcasting is found to hold a position that is continuously well-respected, based on the observation of the seemingly timeless social functions that have been assigned to it.},
  author       = {Jarkell, Emma},
  keyword      = {medierätt,TV-rätt,offentlig rätt,EU-rätt,public service},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Public service-TV – i allmänhetens tjänst?},
  year         = {2013},
}