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Modebranschens rättsliga skydd mot plagiering

Berg, Erika LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Intresset för svenska modeprodukter ökar både i Sverige och utomlands. Under 2011 omsatte svensk modeindustri 206 miljarder kronor. I takt med att intresset för svenskt mode ökar blir det alltmer lockande att plagiera framgångsrika företags plagg.

Modeföretagen investerar mycket tid och stora summor på formgivningen av en produkt för att den ska bli så attraktiv och konkurrenskraftig som möjligt. Det är därför viktigt för modeföretagen att kunna förhindra plagiering av produkterna på ett effektivt sätt.

Under 2000-talet har stora förändringar av skyddsmöjligheterna i mönsterrätten varumärkesrätten skett genom ett antal EU-förordningar och -direktiv. Dessa förändringar har medfört en ökad möjlighet för modeskapare att skydda mönster... (More)
Intresset för svenska modeprodukter ökar både i Sverige och utomlands. Under 2011 omsatte svensk modeindustri 206 miljarder kronor. I takt med att intresset för svenskt mode ökar blir det alltmer lockande att plagiera framgångsrika företags plagg.

Modeföretagen investerar mycket tid och stora summor på formgivningen av en produkt för att den ska bli så attraktiv och konkurrenskraftig som möjligt. Det är därför viktigt för modeföretagen att kunna förhindra plagiering av produkterna på ett effektivt sätt.

Under 2000-talet har stora förändringar av skyddsmöjligheterna i mönsterrätten varumärkesrätten skett genom ett antal EU-förordningar och -direktiv. Dessa förändringar har medfört en ökad möjlighet för modeskapare att skydda mönster och kännetecknande utformningar.

En modeprodukts design skyddas främst genom upphovsrätten och mönsterrätten. De båda rättigheterna överlappar till stor del och eftersom ett skydd inte utesluter det andra är det vanligt att en design erhåller ett dubbelt skydd. Upphovsrätt uppstår formlöst medan mönsterrätten registreras i Sverige eller inom hela EU. Sedan 2002 är det även möjligt att erhålla ett EU-gemensamt treårigt skydd utan registrering.

Det upphovsrättsliga skyddet för modeprodukter omfattar design som kan anses ge uttryck för ett originellt och självständigt skapande. Skyddsomfånget är i regel snävt för modeprodukter till följd av att kravet på originalitet ställs lågt för dessa produkter med hänsyn till det begränsade variationsutrymmet. I princip kan endast direkt kopiering eller i de närmaste identiska efterbildningar förhindras.

Mönsterskyddet omfattar ny och särpräglad design. Varje mönster som inte gör ett annat helhetsintryck på den kunniga användaren faller inom skyddsomfånget. Eftersom variationsutrymmet för modeprodukter av naturliga orsaker är begränsat är skyddsomgånget i regel mycket snävt. Ensamrätten omfattar till skillnad från upphovsrätten även design som inte utgör efterbildning, utan har skapats självständigt. Det oregistrerade mönstersskyddet är dock endast ett efterbildningsskydd.

Varumärkesrätten ger skydd för kännetecken som kan särskilja ett företags produkter från andra företags. Eftersom kännetecknet måste kunna signalera att det är ett varumärke faller det sig naturligt att det är främst ord- och figurmärken som registreras. Det är även möjligt att i vissa fall registrera färg- och formmärken. Ett varumärke gör det möjligt för ett företag att associera deras produkter med en viss kvalitet. Ett tydligt sätt att göra detta är att integrera en logga i produktens utformning. Även registrerade tygmönster, såsom Marimekkos blommönster UNIKKO eller Levi’s ficksömmar kan registreras som ett varumärke och har ofta stor betydelse för produktens attraktivitet hos konsumenterna. Varumärken har generellt ett större skyddsomfång, vilket innebär att möjligheten att hindra en plagiering förbättras. I Sverige kan varumärken även erhålla skydd genom inarbetning av ett kännetecken.

Vid sidan av det immaterialrättsliga skyddet ger marknadsrätten ett viktigt skydd vid plagiering av modeprodukter. Genom marknadsföringslagen kan vilseledande efterbildning av kända och särpräglade produkter förbjudas. Otillbörlig marknadsföring, såsom renommésnyltning kan förbjudas även om det inte föreligger någon förväxlingsrisk.

Genom detta lapptäcke av skyddsmöjligheter framstår det som att modebranschen har tillfredställande skydd mot plagiering. Ett antal faktorer medför dock att skydden inte utnyttjas, vilket innebär att plagiering av modeprodukter fortfarande är ett stort problem inom branschen. Den kanske främsta anledningen är en bristande kunskap om skydden. De som känner till skydden anser i regel att det är för krångligt att registrera produkterna som i många fall marknadsförs under en begränsad tid. Eftersom designens skyddsomfång är snävt och bedöms från fall till fall är utgången i en rättslig tvist osäker. Eftersom en rättsprocess riskerar bli långdragen är det för de flesta svenska modedesigner inte heller ekonomiskt möjligt att stämma för intrång i en ensamrätt. (Less)
Abstract
Interest in Swedish fashion products is increasing in Sweden as well as abroad. In 2011, Swedish fashion industry had a turnover of 206 billion kronor. As the interest in Swedish fashion increases, it becomes increasingly appealing to plagiarize the designs of successful companies.

Fashion companies invest much time and large sums of money in the designing of a product to make it as appealing and competitive as possible. It is therefore important for the fashion companies to be able to prevent plagiarism of their products in an efficient manner.

During the 21:st century the design protection possibilities has been the subject of profound changes through EU regulations and directives. These changes have brought an increased... (More)
Interest in Swedish fashion products is increasing in Sweden as well as abroad. In 2011, Swedish fashion industry had a turnover of 206 billion kronor. As the interest in Swedish fashion increases, it becomes increasingly appealing to plagiarize the designs of successful companies.

Fashion companies invest much time and large sums of money in the designing of a product to make it as appealing and competitive as possible. It is therefore important for the fashion companies to be able to prevent plagiarism of their products in an efficient manner.

During the 21:st century the design protection possibilities has been the subject of profound changes through EU regulations and directives. These changes have brought an increased possibility for fashion designers to protect their patterns and distinctive designs.

A fashion design is primarily protected through copyright or design rights. These protection mechanisms have substantial overlaps and since one protection does not exclude the other it is common for a design to enjoy a double protection. Copyright subsists without registration while design rights have to be registered in Sweden or by means of a Community design application. Since 2002 it is also possible to obtain an unregistered Community design lasting for three years.

Copyright protection for fashion designs comprises designs making an original work with a distinctive character. The scope of protection of fashion designs is usually narrow due to the requirement of originality being set low for these products with regard to limited design freedom. In principle only clear copies or close to identical imitations can be prevented.

Design protection comprises new designs with an individual character. Every design not producing a different overall impression on an informed user falls within the scope of protection. Since the design freedom is limited for fashion designs the scope of protection is usually very limited. The exclusive right to use the design comprises, contrary to copyright, also designs not copying the original but have been created independently. The unregistered design protection is however merely a protection against copying.

Trademark law provides protection to signs capable of distinguishing goods of one undertaking from those of another. Since the sign must be able to indicate its function as a trademark it is not surprising that primarily words and figurative marks are registered. It is, however, possible to register colour marks and shape marks. A trade mark makes it possible for a company to create an association between their products and a desired quality. A clear way of doing this is by including a logotype in a products design. Even registered patterns, such as the Marimekko floral pattern UNIKKO or Levi´s pocket stitching can be registered as a trademark which often has a great significance for appealing to the customers. Trademarks generally have a wider scope of protection than other IP rights, which means that the possibility to prevent plagiarism is better. In Sweden trademarks can also enjoy protection by establishment.

Beside the intellectual property protections marketing law provides an important protection against plagiarism of fashion designs. The Swedish marketing law establishes that passing off known and distinctive goods as emanating from another company is not allowed. Unjust marketing, such as freeriding on another company´s good will can be forbidden even if there is no risk for public confusion.

Through this patchwork of protection possibilities it appears the fashion industry has a sufficient protection against plagiarism. A number of factors do however result in the protections not being used, which means plagiarism of fashion design is still a major problem for the industry. The perhaps cardinal reason for this is the lack of knowledge. The companies that do know about the protections generally find it too complex to register the products that often are marketed during a short period of time. Since the scope of protection is narrow and is being determined from case to case the outcome of a legal battle is uncertain. Since a judicial proceeding tends to be lengthy it is for most Swedish designers not financially possible to sue for an infringement in an exclusive right. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Berg, Erika LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The fashion industry's legal protection against plagiarism
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
immaterialrätt
language
Swedish
id
3970970
date added to LUP
2013-10-10 10:31:35
date last changed
2013-10-10 10:31:35
@misc{3970970,
  abstract     = {Interest in Swedish fashion products is increasing in Sweden as well as abroad. In 2011, Swedish fashion industry had a turnover of 206 billion kronor. As the interest in Swedish fashion increases, it becomes increasingly appealing to plagiarize the designs of successful companies.

Fashion companies invest much time and large sums of money in the designing of a product to make it as appealing and competitive as possible. It is therefore important for the fashion companies to be able to prevent plagiarism of their products in an efficient manner. 

During the 21:st century the design protection possibilities has been the subject of profound changes through EU regulations and directives. These changes have brought an increased possibility for fashion designers to protect their patterns and distinctive designs. 

A fashion design is primarily protected through copyright or design rights. These protection mechanisms have substantial overlaps and since one protection does not exclude the other it is common for a design to enjoy a double protection. Copyright subsists without registration while design rights have to be registered in Sweden or by means of a Community design application. Since 2002 it is also possible to obtain an unregistered Community design lasting for three years. 

Copyright protection for fashion designs comprises designs making an original work with a distinctive character. The scope of protection of fashion designs is usually narrow due to the requirement of originality being set low for these products with regard to limited design freedom. In principle only clear copies or close to identical imitations can be prevented. 

Design protection comprises new designs with an individual character. Every design not producing a different overall impression on an informed user falls within the scope of protection. Since the design freedom is limited for fashion designs the scope of protection is usually very limited. The exclusive right to use the design comprises, contrary to copyright, also designs not copying the original but have been created independently. The unregistered design protection is however merely a protection against copying. 

Trademark law provides protection to signs capable of distinguishing goods of one undertaking from those of another. Since the sign must be able to indicate its function as a trademark it is not surprising that primarily words and figurative marks are registered. It is, however, possible to register colour marks and shape marks. A trade mark makes it possible for a company to create an association between their products and a desired quality. A clear way of doing this is by including a logotype in a products design. Even registered patterns, such as the Marimekko floral pattern UNIKKO or Levi´s pocket stitching can be registered as a trademark which often has a great significance for appealing to the customers. Trademarks generally have a wider scope of protection than other IP rights, which means that the possibility to prevent plagiarism is better. In Sweden trademarks can also enjoy protection by establishment. 

Beside the intellectual property protections marketing law provides an important protection against plagiarism of fashion designs. The Swedish marketing law establishes that passing off known and distinctive goods as emanating from another company is not allowed. Unjust marketing, such as freeriding on another company´s good will can be forbidden even if there is no risk for public confusion.

Through this patchwork of protection possibilities it appears the fashion industry has a sufficient protection against plagiarism. A number of factors do however result in the protections not being used, which means plagiarism of fashion design is still a major problem for the industry. The perhaps cardinal reason for this is the lack of knowledge. The companies that do know about the protections generally find it too complex to register the products that often are marketed during a short period of time. Since the scope of protection is narrow and is being determined from case to case the outcome of a legal battle is uncertain. Since a judicial proceeding tends to be lengthy it is for most Swedish designers not financially possible to sue for an infringement in an exclusive right.},
  author       = {Berg, Erika},
  keyword      = {immaterialrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Modebranschens rättsliga skydd mot plagiering},
  year         = {2013},
}