Skip to main content

LUP Student Papers

LUND UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

Kapitalförvaltning i utländsk juridisk person genom fast driftställe i Sverige

Leghammar, Eric LU (2013) JURM02 20131
Department of Law
Abstract
The reasons for conducting asset management through a foreign legal entity can be many. The most common reason however have to be fiscal, due to the fact that foreign tax rules in many cases are more favorable than the Swedish tax law. This procedure, however, arises a number of fiscal problems. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the regulations of a permanent establishment, in Swedish domestic tax law as well as the rights granted to Sweden by the double tax conventions (DTC) and how these regulations can be applied to the asset management in a foreign entity. The thesis deals with various methods to interpret international tax law. It is clear that the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital (OECD MC) has a big influence... (More)
The reasons for conducting asset management through a foreign legal entity can be many. The most common reason however have to be fiscal, due to the fact that foreign tax rules in many cases are more favorable than the Swedish tax law. This procedure, however, arises a number of fiscal problems. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the regulations of a permanent establishment, in Swedish domestic tax law as well as the rights granted to Sweden by the double tax conventions (DTC) and how these regulations can be applied to the asset management in a foreign entity. The thesis deals with various methods to interpret international tax law. It is clear that the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital (OECD MC) has a big influence when it comes to the interpretation of Swedish DTC’s. This approach has been confirmed by the Supreme Administrative Court in a number of rulings.

The main rule in the domestic tax law is that a foreign legal entity has a limited tax liability on their income in Sweden, this means that a foreign legal entity is by standard not liable to income taxation. Such income may however be taxed if the income can be derived from a permanent establishment. In connection with the 1991 tax reform the legislator changed the term enterprise to business in the domestic rule of permanent establishment. The former term did not include income on activities such as asset management and thus could not constitute a permanent establishment. In the preparatory work the legislator called the amendment merely editorial, which arises a few questions, due to the fact that the term business income includes all types of incomes derived from a company. The legal position has since been unclear, but in a ruling from the Supreme Administrative Court RÅ 2009 ref. 91 the court considered that the activities of asset management through a foreign legal entity could constitute business by the means of both the domestic tax law and the applicable DTC. The Supreme Administative Court came to the decision that the asset management constituted a permanent establishment due to the fact that activites where conducted from an office in the home of the owner of the enterprise.

The thesis discusses how the Supreme Administrative Court has applied the OECD MC both in the interpretation of domestic law, as well as in the interpretation of DTC’s. It can be noted that the constituent elements for a fixed place of business to exist are low, as even small efforts from the owner constituted that the home office was at the disposal of the enterprise. The thesis also discusses if the proposed changes to the OECD MC may change the assessment. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Skälen för att bedriva kapitalförvaltning genom utländsk juridisk person kan vara många. Det allra vanligaste skälet måste ändå vara skatterättsligt, då utländska skatteregler i många fall är mer gynnsamma än de svenska. Det uppstår emellertid en rad skatterättsliga problem med förfarandet. I uppsatsen analyseras bestämmelserna om fast driftställe i såväl svensk intern skatterätt som den rätt som tillkommer Sverige genom dubbelbeskattningsavtal och hur dessa bestämmelser kan tillämpas på kapitalförvaltning i utländsk juridisk person. I uppsatsen behandlas olika tolkningsmetoder i den internationella skatterätten. Det står klart att OECD:s modellavtal fungerar som tolkningsdatum för de dubbelbeskattningsavtal Sverige slutit, detta... (More)
Skälen för att bedriva kapitalförvaltning genom utländsk juridisk person kan vara många. Det allra vanligaste skälet måste ändå vara skatterättsligt, då utländska skatteregler i många fall är mer gynnsamma än de svenska. Det uppstår emellertid en rad skatterättsliga problem med förfarandet. I uppsatsen analyseras bestämmelserna om fast driftställe i såväl svensk intern skatterätt som den rätt som tillkommer Sverige genom dubbelbeskattningsavtal och hur dessa bestämmelser kan tillämpas på kapitalförvaltning i utländsk juridisk person. I uppsatsen behandlas olika tolkningsmetoder i den internationella skatterätten. Det står klart att OECD:s modellavtal fungerar som tolkningsdatum för de dubbelbeskattningsavtal Sverige slutit, detta förhållningssätt har bekräftats av HFD i bland annat Englandsfararmålet och Luxemburgmålet.

Huvudregeln i den interna rätten är att en utländsk juridisk person är begränsat skattskyldig för sina inkomster i Sverige enligt bestämmelserna i IL, vilket innebär att denna normalt inte är skattskyldig för inkomster i näringsverksamhet. Sådana inkomster kan emellertid beskattas om de kan härledas till ett fast driftställe i Sverige. I samband med 1991 års skattereform ändrade lagstiftaren begreppet rörelse i bestämmelsen till näringsverksamhet. Det gamla begreppet innefattade inte sådan verksamhet som kapitalförvaltning, således kunde inte heller kapitalförvaltning ge upphov till ett fast driftställe i Sverige. Lagstiftaren menade att ändringen endast var redaktionell, vilket förvirrar eftersom begreppet näringsverksamhet innefattar alla typer av inkomster. Rättsläget har länge varit oklart, men i RÅ 2009 ref. 91 fastställde HFD att kapitalförvaltning genom utländsk juridisk person utgör näringsverksamhet enligt de interna bestämmelserna och affärsverksamhet enligt såväl de interna bestämmelserna som det tillämpliga skatteavtalet. Man konstaterade därefter att kapitalförvaltningen i det aktuella målet utgjorde fast driftställe enligt den generella definitionen genom att verksamheten bedrevs från ett kontor i hemmet hos bolagets ägare.

I uppsatsen diskuteras hur HFD har tillämpat OECD:s modellavtal både vid tolkning av den interna rätten och vid tolkning av dubbelbeskattningsavtalen. Det kan konstateras att kraven för att en stadigvarande plats för affärsverksamhet ska föreligga är lågt ställda, då även mycket små arbetsinsatser från företagets ägare har gjort att domstolen anser att företaget förfogar över ett kontor i hemmet. I uppsatsen diskuteras också hur de föreslagna ändringarna i OECD:s modellavtal angående stadigvarande plats kan komma att ändra bedömningen. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Leghammar, Eric LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Asset management in a foreign legal entity through a permanent establishment in Sweden
course
JURM02 20131
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
dubbelbeskattningsavtal, OECD:s modellavtal, kapitalförvaltning, fast driftställe, internationell skatterätt, skatterätt, internationell beskattning
language
Swedish
id
4015779
date added to LUP
2013-10-10 10:31:22
date last changed
2013-10-10 10:31:22
@misc{4015779,
  abstract     = {The reasons for conducting asset management through a foreign legal entity can be many. The most common reason however have to be fiscal, due to the fact that foreign tax rules in many cases are more favorable than the Swedish tax law. This procedure, however, arises a number of fiscal problems. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the regulations of a permanent establishment, in Swedish domestic tax law as well as the rights granted to Sweden by the double tax conventions (DTC) and how these regulations can be applied to the asset management in a foreign entity. The thesis deals with various methods to interpret international tax law. It is clear that the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital (OECD MC) has a big influence when it comes to the interpretation of Swedish DTC’s. This approach has been confirmed by the Supreme Administrative Court in a number of rulings. 

The main rule in the domestic tax law is that a foreign legal entity has a limited tax liability on their income in Sweden, this means that a foreign legal entity is by standard not liable to income taxation. Such income may however be taxed if the income can be derived from a permanent establishment. In connection with the 1991 tax reform the legislator changed the term enterprise to business in the domestic rule of permanent establishment. The former term did not include income on activities such as asset management and thus could not constitute a permanent establishment. In the preparatory work the legislator called the amendment merely editorial, which arises a few questions, due to the fact that the term business income includes all types of incomes derived from a company. The legal position has since been unclear, but in a ruling from the Supreme Administrative Court RÅ 2009 ref. 91 the court considered that the activities of asset management through a foreign legal entity could constitute business by the means of both the domestic tax law and the applicable DTC. The Supreme Administative Court came to the decision that the asset management constituted a permanent establishment due to the fact that activites where conducted from an office in the home of the owner of the enterprise. 

The thesis discusses how the Supreme Administrative Court has applied the OECD MC both in the interpretation of domestic law, as well as in the interpretation of DTC’s. It can be noted that the constituent elements for a fixed place of business to exist are low, as even small efforts from the owner constituted that the home office was at the disposal of the enterprise. The thesis also discusses if the proposed changes to the OECD MC may change the assessment.},
  author       = {Leghammar, Eric},
  keyword      = {dubbelbeskattningsavtal,OECD:s modellavtal,kapitalförvaltning,fast driftställe,internationell skatterätt,skatterätt,internationell beskattning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Kapitalförvaltning i utländsk juridisk person genom fast driftställe i Sverige},
  year         = {2013},
}