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Barnets möjlighet att få sin röst hörd i civilrättsliga respektive socialrättsliga frågor

Frisdal, Kjell LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Detta arbete handlar om barnets möjligheter att komma till tals i situationer som regleras av den civilrättsliga lagstiftningen genom föräldrabalkens sjätte kapitel och av den socialrättsliga lagstiftningen genom lagen (1990:52) med särskilda bestämmelser om vård av unga. Sverige har sedan ingåendet av barnkonventionen 1990 fått göra successiva förändringar av den rådande lagstiftningen då skyddskraven som konventionen uppställer för barn inte var uppfyllda. Under de senaste 23 åren har denna genomgång varit påtaglig och detta har betytt mycket för barnets möjligheter att få framföra sina åsikter och sin vilja på ett djupare plan än tidigare. Barnets åsikter ska numera tas fram i utredningen, vilket inte alltid varit fallet. Tidigare... (More)
Detta arbete handlar om barnets möjligheter att komma till tals i situationer som regleras av den civilrättsliga lagstiftningen genom föräldrabalkens sjätte kapitel och av den socialrättsliga lagstiftningen genom lagen (1990:52) med särskilda bestämmelser om vård av unga. Sverige har sedan ingåendet av barnkonventionen 1990 fått göra successiva förändringar av den rådande lagstiftningen då skyddskraven som konventionen uppställer för barn inte var uppfyllda. Under de senaste 23 åren har denna genomgång varit påtaglig och detta har betytt mycket för barnets möjligheter att få framföra sina åsikter och sin vilja på ett djupare plan än tidigare. Barnets åsikter ska numera tas fram i utredningen, vilket inte alltid varit fallet. Tidigare utredningar där barn var inblandade genomfördes utan att barnet själv kom till tals. Förutom denna problematik har det även varit ganska olika kvalité på de utredningar som genomförts avseende barnets inställning; en kvalitetsskillnad som är resultatet av olika faktorer. En faktor är att olika kommuner har olika nivåer på utbildning av den personal som tar sig an barnet vid en utredning. Grundkravet är att man har en socionomutbildning samt att man har arbetat med dessa frågor i minst ett år. Från utredningens håll har man framfört kritik mot kommunernas roll och påpekat att Socialstyrelsens rekommendationer har blivit betydligt klarare angående tillvägagångssättet vid en utredning av barn i utsatta situationer - men även hur detta skall dokumenteras för att i möjligaste mån underlätta för rätten och dess framtida arbete med att kunna fatta ett beslut i frågan. Dessa rekommendationer gäller även om barnet själv inte vill medverka i utredningen.

Barnets möjligheter att göra sin röst hörd i frågor som rör dem i svensk rätt skiljer sig mellan den civilrättsliga och socialrättsliga lagstiftningen. En av de stora skillnaderna är att barnet vid socialrättsliga mål som rör lagen (1990:52) med särskilda bestämmelser om vård av unga får ett offentligt biträde medan utredningsansvaret enligt civilrättslig lagstiftning faller på socialnämndens utredare till att klargöra barnets åsikt.

Det senaste året har en rad olika lagar förändrats då man tagit mycket större hänsyn till artikel 12 i Barnkonventionen. Barnet skall ges information som ska ge barnet möjlighet att själv bilda sig en egen uppfattning och ges möjlighet att uttrycka denna åsikt.

Det blåser nu än en gång förändringens vindar som vidgar svenska barns möjligheter att komma till tals. (Less)
Abstract
This paper focuses on the opportunity of a child to be heard in matters regulated by the Parental Code chapter 6, and by the Care of the Young Law. Since the ratification of the UNCRC in 1990 Sweden has been forced to make continuous judicial changes in order to meet the requirements set forth by the convention. The last 23 years of alterations in Swedish regulations have had major positive impacts on children’s possibilities to speak their mind and the situation differs much from former days. Nowadays, it is customary that the child’s opinions are brought forward early in the investigation process regarding a certain case, which has not been done previously. Former investigations had the tendency to differ a lot in terms of quality; one... (More)
This paper focuses on the opportunity of a child to be heard in matters regulated by the Parental Code chapter 6, and by the Care of the Young Law. Since the ratification of the UNCRC in 1990 Sweden has been forced to make continuous judicial changes in order to meet the requirements set forth by the convention. The last 23 years of alterations in Swedish regulations have had major positive impacts on children’s possibilities to speak their mind and the situation differs much from former days. Nowadays, it is customary that the child’s opinions are brought forward early in the investigation process regarding a certain case, which has not been done previously. Former investigations had the tendency to differ a lot in terms of quality; one issue that led to this inconsistency is that each of the Swedish municipalities offers different levels of training for the staff that handles the interaction with a child during an investigation. The basic requirement is that the personnel that interact with a child in these kinds of investigations have a degree in social work, and one year of related working experience.
The commission has criticized the municipalities about this and given further, and more detailed, recommendations regarding the process of an investigation of a child in a vulnerable situation. The commission has also set up guidelines on how to document the interaction with a child in order for it to carry the greatest evidential value in court. By following these guidelines the court will have enough information to make a final decision in the case. These recommendations by the commission are applicable on an investigation regardless if the child whishes to be part of the investigation or not.

The possibility to be heard in cases regarding a child’s situation differs between civil- and social legislation. One of the major differences is that the child, in cases where social legislation especially the Care of the Young Code is applicable, a public defender is provided to guards the rights of the child.

Lately a number of Swedish laws have been alternated in order to more accurately comply with article 12 of the UNCRC. The child must be given enough information in order for it to construct an opinion of its own, and should also be given the opportunity to express that opinion unhindered.

The winds of change are once again blowing and Swedish laws continue to extend a child’s possibility to be heard. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Frisdal, Kjell LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The voice of a child in matters of Family Law and Social Legislation
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
4139753
date added to LUP
2013-11-11 12:05:37
date last changed
2013-11-11 12:05:37
@misc{4139753,
  abstract     = {This paper focuses on the opportunity of a child to be heard in matters regulated by the Parental Code chapter 6, and by the Care of the Young Law. Since the ratification of the UNCRC in 1990 Sweden has been forced to make continuous judicial changes in order to meet the requirements set forth by the convention. The last 23 years of alterations in Swedish regulations have had major positive impacts on children’s possibilities to speak their mind and the situation differs much from former days. Nowadays, it is customary that the child’s opinions are brought forward early in the investigation process regarding a certain case, which has not been done previously. Former investigations had the tendency to differ a lot in terms of quality; one issue that led to this inconsistency is that each of the Swedish municipalities offers different levels of training for the staff that handles the interaction with a child during an investigation. The basic requirement is that the personnel that interact with a child in these kinds of investigations have a degree in social work, and one year of related working experience. 
The commission has criticized the municipalities about this and given further, and more detailed, recommendations regarding the process of an investigation of a child in a vulnerable situation. The commission has also set up guidelines on how to document the interaction with a child in order for it to carry the greatest evidential value in court. By following these guidelines the court will have enough information to make a final decision in the case. These recommendations by the commission are applicable on an investigation regardless if the child whishes to be part of the investigation or not. 

The possibility to be heard in cases regarding a child’s situation differs between civil- and social legislation. One of the major differences is that the child, in cases where social legislation especially the Care of the Young Code is applicable, a public defender is provided to guards the rights of the child. 

Lately a number of Swedish laws have been alternated in order to more accurately comply with article 12 of the UNCRC. The child must be given enough information in order for it to construct an opinion of its own, and should also be given the opportunity to express that opinion unhindered. 

The winds of change are once again blowing and Swedish laws continue to extend a child’s possibility to be heard.},
  author       = {Frisdal, Kjell},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Barnets möjlighet att få sin röst hörd i civilrättsliga respektive socialrättsliga frågor},
  year         = {2013},
}