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”För bra för att vara sant” - En studie i hanteringen av onormalt låga anbud vid offentliga upphandlingar

Sjöholm, Daniel LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract
This thesis focuses on public procurements and deals with the concept of
abnormally low tenders. The low levels in a tender can be founded in a hidden agenda or in a misunderstanding by the tenderer. This means that the contracting authority may wish to reject the current offer. The low level, on the other hand, can just as easily be completely legitimate and should therefore not be discouraged. The regulations and established practices in this field shows that a rejection of abnormally low tenders cannot be done before a certain procedure has been implemented. This adversarial process provides an opportunity to the tenderer to justify the low level in an abnormally low tender. The applicable law does not clarify how an abnormally low... (More)
This thesis focuses on public procurements and deals with the concept of
abnormally low tenders. The low levels in a tender can be founded in a hidden agenda or in a misunderstanding by the tenderer. This means that the contracting authority may wish to reject the current offer. The low level, on the other hand, can just as easily be completely legitimate and should therefore not be discouraged. The regulations and established practices in this field shows that a rejection of abnormally low tenders cannot be done before a certain procedure has been implemented. This adversarial process provides an opportunity to the tenderer to justify the low level in an abnormally low tender. The applicable law does not clarify how an abnormally low tender should be distinguished from other bids. However, it is emphasized that this identification is to be made on a case-by-case basis and depends on the subject of the procurement. The Court has emphasized that the use of mathematical formulas may be used to detect abnormally low tenders. Furthermore, it is stressed that the contracting authority may use other methods to identify these tenders since there is some discretionary space in this assessment. It is
also noted that the concept of abnormally low tenders not only appears to be attributable to the price level but also might include other aspects such as the number of hours offered. If the abnormally low tenders were associated with a state aid, other rules would apply, focusing on whether such aid is granted legally or not. The justification of an abnormally low tender level is achieved by an explanation of the reasons for the low level by the tenderer. It is the seriousness,reliability, viability and the sustainability that should be shown in the tenders for these to be justified. There is no universal explanation that can be applied to an abnormally low tender, these tenders are instead to be valued in relation to the current subject of the procurement. It will also be relevant for a dominant company to avoid a situation of predatory pricing which can result in an abuse of this dominant position. If an abnormally low tender in Sweden would win the procurement, it seems there is no opportunity for the losing tenderer to get this decision reviewed. This despite the fact that this possibility can be seen in some decisions from Sweden and the European union. In the event of a dispute where the abnormally low tenders have been rejected, the burden of proof concerning the tender´s seriousness seems to have been moved from the contracting authority to the tenderer. The thesis contains a continuous comparison with the Commission's proposed directive proposal. Will this proposal come in to effect then it will transform all aspects of an abnormally low tender.
The thesis concludes with a presentation of some changes that could be
made in the legal framework on abnormally low tenders based on my own
findings, the Commission´s directive proposal and from a detection method
retrieved from doctrine. In the analysis section I also present my own theory that there most likely exists a mandatory intention for a rejection with the contracting authority when it detects an abnormally low tender. This intention is not found in the Swedish regulation, which essentially gives the contracting authority an optional opportunity to reject abnormally low tenders. The intention to reject comes from the pro-competitive purpose, which is behind the current regulation. This means that a decision to accept an abnormally low tender that inhibit competition on the market goes against the purpose of the public
procurement directive and the regulation surrounding the abnormally low tenders. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Denna uppsats fokuserar på offentliga upphandlingar och behandlar begreppet onormalt låga anbud. Dessa anbudens låga nivå kan vara grundade i dolda motiv eller missförstånd från anbudsgivaren. Detta medför att den
upphandlande myndigheten kan vilja förkasta det aktuella anbudet. Den låga
nivån kan däremot lika gärna vara helt legitimt och bör därmed inte förkastas. Regelverket samt praxis på området visar att ett förkastande av onormalt låga anbud inte kan ske innan ett visst förfarande har genomförts. Detta kontradiktoriska förfarande erbjuder en möjlighet för anbudsgivaren att rättfärdiga den låga nivån i ett onormalt lågt anbud. Den nu gällande rätten klargör inte hur ett onormalt lågt anbud ska urskiljas från andra anbud. Det har... (More)
Denna uppsats fokuserar på offentliga upphandlingar och behandlar begreppet onormalt låga anbud. Dessa anbudens låga nivå kan vara grundade i dolda motiv eller missförstånd från anbudsgivaren. Detta medför att den
upphandlande myndigheten kan vilja förkasta det aktuella anbudet. Den låga
nivån kan däremot lika gärna vara helt legitimt och bör därmed inte förkastas. Regelverket samt praxis på området visar att ett förkastande av onormalt låga anbud inte kan ske innan ett visst förfarande har genomförts. Detta kontradiktoriska förfarande erbjuder en möjlighet för anbudsgivaren att rättfärdiga den låga nivån i ett onormalt lågt anbud. Den nu gällande rätten klargör inte hur ett onormalt lågt anbud ska urskiljas från andra anbud. Det har emellertid framhållits att denna identifiering ska göras från fall till fall och är beroende av upphandlingsföremålet. EU-domstolen har framhållit att användandet av matematiska formler får användas för att identifiera onormalt låga anbud. Vidare framhålls det att den upphandlande myndigheten även får använda andra metoder för att identifiera dessa anbud då det finns ett visst skönsmässigt utrymme vid denna bedömning. Det konstateras även att begreppet onormalt låga anbud inte enbart verkar vara hänförligt till prisnivån utan kan även avse andra aspekter såsom antalet offererade arbetstimmar. Skulle det onormalt låga anbudet vara förknippat med statliga stöd så blir andra regler tillämpliga vilka fokuseras på huruvida dessa stöd beviljats lagligt eller inte. Rättfärdigandet av en onormalt låg anbudsnivå sker genom att orsakerna till den låga nivån förklaras av anbudsgivaren. Det är seriositeten, tillförlitligheten, trovärdigheten, hållbarheten och allvaret i anbuden som visas i anbuden
för att dessa ska rättfärdigas. Det finns ingen allmängiltig förklaring som kan tillämpas på ett onormalt lågt anbud utan dessa värderas i förhållande till det aktuella upphandlingsföremålet. Det blir även relevant för ett dominant företag att undvika en underprissättningssituation vilket kan resultera i ett missbruk av denna dominanta ställning. Om ett onormalt lågt anbud i Sverige skulle vinna en upphandling så verkar det inte finns någon möjlighet för den förlorande anbudsgivaren att få detta beslut överprövat. Detta trots att denna möjlighet kan skönjas i vissa avgörande på svensk och unionsrättslig nivå. Vid en eventuell tvist då ett onormalt lågt anbud blivit förkastat verkar bevisbördan för att anbudet varit seriöst ha flyttats ifrån den upphandlande myndigheten till anbudsgivaren. Uppsatsen innehåller en kontinuerlig jämförelse till Kommissionens framlagda direktivförslag. Blir detta förslag framröstat så kommer det att förändra samtliga aspekter rörande ett onormalt lågt anbud. Uppsatsen avslutas med en presentation över vissa förändringar som skulle kunna införas i regelverket kring onormalt låga anbud baserade på egna slutsatser, Kommissionens direktivförslag samt från en identifieringsmetod
hämtad ur doktrinen. I analysdelen presenterar jag även en egen tes om att det sannolikt finns en obligatorisk förkastandeavsikt hos den upphandlande myndigheten när de identifierat ett onormalt lågt anbud. Denna förkastandeavsikt återfinns emellertid inte i det svenska regelverket vilket i huvudsak ger den upphandlande myndigheten en valfri möjlighet att förkasta onormalt låga anbud. Förkastandeavsikten hämtas från det konkurrensfrämjande syftet som finns bakom den aktuella regleringen. Detta innebär att ett antagande av ett onormalt lågt anbud som hämmar konkurrensen på marknaden strider mot ändamålet med Upphandlingsdirektivet och regleringen kring onormalt låga anbud. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Sjöholm, Daniel LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
"Too good to be true" - A study in the handling of abnormally low tenders in public procurements
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
konkurrensrätt., förvaltningsrätt, EU-rätt
language
Swedish
id
4222171
date added to LUP
2014-01-31 10:40:44
date last changed
2014-01-31 10:40:44
@misc{4222171,
  abstract     = {This thesis focuses on public procurements and deals with the concept of
abnormally low tenders. The low levels in a tender can be founded in a hidden agenda or in a misunderstanding by the tenderer. This means that the contracting authority may wish to reject the current offer. The low level, on the other hand, can just as easily be completely legitimate and should therefore not be discouraged. The regulations and established practices in this field shows that a rejection of abnormally low tenders cannot be done before a certain procedure has been implemented. This adversarial process provides an opportunity to the tenderer to justify the low level in an abnormally low tender. The applicable law does not clarify how an abnormally low tender should be distinguished from other bids. However, it is emphasized that this identification is to be made on a case-by-case basis and depends on the subject of the procurement. The Court has emphasized that the use of mathematical formulas may be used to detect abnormally low tenders. Furthermore, it is stressed that the contracting authority may use other methods to identify these tenders since there is some discretionary space in this assessment. It is
also noted that the concept of abnormally low tenders not only appears to be attributable to the price level but also might include other aspects such as the number of hours offered. If the abnormally low tenders were associated with a state aid, other rules would apply, focusing on whether such aid is granted legally or not. The justification of an abnormally low tender level is achieved by an explanation of the reasons for the low level by the tenderer. It is the seriousness,reliability, viability and the sustainability that should be shown in the tenders for these to be justified. There is no universal explanation that can be applied to an abnormally low tender, these tenders are instead to be valued in relation to the current subject of the procurement. It will also be relevant for a dominant company to avoid a situation of predatory pricing which can result in an abuse of this dominant position. If an abnormally low tender in Sweden would win the procurement, it seems there is no opportunity for the losing tenderer to get this decision reviewed. This despite the fact that this possibility can be seen in some decisions from Sweden and the European union. In the event of a dispute where the abnormally low tenders have been rejected, the burden of proof concerning the tender´s seriousness seems to have been moved from the contracting authority to the tenderer. The thesis contains a continuous comparison with the Commission's proposed directive proposal. Will this proposal come in to effect then it will transform all aspects of an abnormally low tender.
The thesis concludes with a presentation of some changes that could be
made in the legal framework on abnormally low tenders based on my own
findings, the Commission´s directive proposal and from a detection method
retrieved from doctrine. In the analysis section I also present my own theory that there most likely exists a mandatory intention for a rejection with the contracting authority when it detects an abnormally low tender. This intention is not found in the Swedish regulation, which essentially gives the contracting authority an optional opportunity to reject abnormally low tenders. The intention to reject comes from the pro-competitive purpose, which is behind the current regulation. This means that a decision to accept an abnormally low tender that inhibit competition on the market goes against the purpose of the public
procurement directive and the regulation surrounding the abnormally low tenders.},
  author       = {Sjöholm, Daniel},
  keyword      = {konkurrensrätt.,förvaltningsrätt,EU-rätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {”För bra för att vara sant” - En studie i hanteringen av onormalt låga anbud vid offentliga upphandlingar},
  year         = {2013},
}