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Yttrandefrihet och lojalitetsplikt - Anställningsskyddets påverkan av sociala medier

Jarnér, Camilla LU (2013) LAGF03 20132
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I denna uppsats undersöks rättsläget för arbetstagares yttrandefrihet och gränserna för kritikrätten vid användning av social media så som Facebook, Twitter och bloggar inom den privata sektorn.

Av anställningsavtalet följer en direkt plikt för arbetstagaren att vara lojal mot sin arbetsgivare. Han eller hon är skyldig att inte utsätta sin arbetsgivare för skada och undvika lägen där han eller hon kan hamna i en pliktkollision med arbetsgivarens intressen. Detta innebär till exempel att en arbetstagare inte får lov att bryta mot sin tystnadsplikt eller överskrida sin kritikrätt när han eller hon kritiserar sin arbetsgivare eller dennes verksamhet internt eller externt.

En arbetstagare inom ett privat anställningsförhållande erhåller... (More)
I denna uppsats undersöks rättsläget för arbetstagares yttrandefrihet och gränserna för kritikrätten vid användning av social media så som Facebook, Twitter och bloggar inom den privata sektorn.

Av anställningsavtalet följer en direkt plikt för arbetstagaren att vara lojal mot sin arbetsgivare. Han eller hon är skyldig att inte utsätta sin arbetsgivare för skada och undvika lägen där han eller hon kan hamna i en pliktkollision med arbetsgivarens intressen. Detta innebär till exempel att en arbetstagare inte får lov att bryta mot sin tystnadsplikt eller överskrida sin kritikrätt när han eller hon kritiserar sin arbetsgivare eller dennes verksamhet internt eller externt.

En arbetstagare inom ett privat anställningsförhållande erhåller inte den grundlagsskyddade yttrandefriheten som en offentlig anställd har gentemot sin arbetsgivare. Istället har en arbetstagare inom den privata sektorn, enligt Arbetsdomstolen, rätt till ”den medborgerliga yttrandefriheten” vilket ses som en förutsättning för goda och demokratiska arbetsförhållanden. Det är dock inte helt klart vad denna rättighet innebär. Enligt Europadomstolens praxis framgår även att konventionsstaterna har en positiv skyldighet att upprätthålla yttrandefriheten även mellan privata rättssubjekt, som till exempel i förhållandet mellan en arbetstagare och en arbetsgivare inom den privata sektorn. Denna skyldighet anses vara starkare då en arbetstagare påtalar eller yttrar sig om missförhållanden som är av stort allmänt intresse.

En arbetstagares yttrande eller användande av social media verkar bedömas utifrån de riktlinjer som utvecklas från Arbetsdomstolens praxis. Bedömningen om saklig grund föreligger för uppsägning kommer då att bedömas utifrån framtagna principer om lojalitet och om arbetstagarens handlande eller yttrande på social media har skadat arbetsgivaren. Dock har domstolen enligt ny praxis fastslagit att regeln om saklig grund skall tolkas i ljuset av Europakonventionen och dess rättigheter ska beaktas inom ramen för intresseavvägningen då arbetstagaren på sin fritid utnyttjat sin åsiktsfrihet. Det är dock oklart om detta även gäller yttranden som görs via social media. Det verkar dock som om Arbetsdomstolen i större grad än tidigare tolkar anställningsskyddet mot bakgrund av Europadomstolens praxis.

Det kan dock diskuteras om inte användningen av sociala medier kan komma att påverka Arbetsdomstolens bedömningsgrunder i vissa avseenden. Exempelvis huruvida en arbetstagares uttalande eller yttrande som görs på Facebook eller bloggar någonsin görs i syfte att skada arbetsgivaren, för att komma tillrätta med missförhållanden eller om graden av publicitet är densamma som när en arbetstagare exempelvis yttrar sig om uppgifter i massmedia. (Less)
Abstract
The main purpose of this thesis is to examine the width of private employees’ freedom of expression and the right to criticize the employer when using social media such as Facebook, Twitter and blogs.

Within the employment agreement lays an obligation for an employee to be loyal to his or her employer. The employee has a duty to put the interest of the employer ahead of his or her own personal interest and to avoid situations where there is a conflict of interests and refrain from causing the employer any harm. The concept of loyalty covers many different obligations, for example the duty to respect confidentiality and the duty to not criticize the employer or the workplace beyond certain limits internally or externally.

An... (More)
The main purpose of this thesis is to examine the width of private employees’ freedom of expression and the right to criticize the employer when using social media such as Facebook, Twitter and blogs.

Within the employment agreement lays an obligation for an employee to be loyal to his or her employer. The employee has a duty to put the interest of the employer ahead of his or her own personal interest and to avoid situations where there is a conflict of interests and refrain from causing the employer any harm. The concept of loyalty covers many different obligations, for example the duty to respect confidentiality and the duty to not criticize the employer or the workplace beyond certain limits internally or externally.

An employee employed within the private sector does not obtain the constitutionally protected freedom of speech as employees employed in the public sector. However, the Labour Court has concluded that private employees have a civic freedom of expression as a prerequisite for fair and democratic conditions on the labour market. It is not entirely clear what this exactly means or how far-reaching this freedom is. According to the case law from the European Court of Human Rights, States Parties have a positive obligation to ensure the right to freedom of expression between an employer and employee within the private sector. This obligation is considered to be stronger when an employee calls attention to disproportion of great public interest.

When determining if an employee’s usage of social media could be a cause for dismissal is still to be determined against the concept of loyalty and if the employee had caused his or her employer any damage. However, fairly new case law by the Labour Court shows that the labour legislative must be interpreted in the light of the European Convention, especially when an employee exercised his or her right to freedom of opinion outside of the workplace. It is not entirely clear if this also includes freedom of expression while using social media. However, it seems like the Labour Court in a larger degree than previously, interprets the labour legislation in the light of European case law.

It remains uncertain whether criticism made on social media may affect the Labour Court’s assessment in some aspect. For instance, it can be questioned whether an opinion about the employer expressed on Facebook or blogs are made with the main purpose of causing the employer damage or improving the working conditions in the workplace. It can also be discussed whether the degree of publicity on social media in some way differs from when employees for example give information directly to mass media. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Jarnér, Camilla LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20132
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
kritikrätt, yttrandefrihet, lojalitetsplikt, Arbetsrätt, social media
language
Swedish
id
4227932
date added to LUP
2014-01-28 17:25:33
date last changed
2014-01-28 17:25:33
@misc{4227932,
  abstract     = {The main purpose of this thesis is to examine the width of private employees’ freedom of expression and the right to criticize the employer when using social media such as Facebook, Twitter and blogs. 

Within the employment agreement lays an obligation for an employee to be loyal to his or her employer. The employee has a duty to put the interest of the employer ahead of his or her own personal interest and to avoid situations where there is a conflict of interests and refrain from causing the employer any harm. The concept of loyalty covers many different obligations, for example the duty to respect confidentiality and the duty to not criticize the employer or the workplace beyond certain limits internally or externally. 

An employee employed within the private sector does not obtain the constitutionally protected freedom of speech as employees employed in the public sector. However, the Labour Court has concluded that private employees have a civic freedom of expression as a prerequisite for fair and democratic conditions on the labour market. It is not entirely clear what this exactly means or how far-reaching this freedom is. According to the case law from the European Court of Human Rights, States Parties have a positive obligation to ensure the right to freedom of expression between an employer and employee within the private sector. This obligation is considered to be stronger when an employee calls attention to disproportion of great public interest. 

When determining if an employee’s usage of social media could be a cause for dismissal is still to be determined against the concept of loyalty and if the employee had caused his or her employer any damage. However, fairly new case law by the Labour Court shows that the labour legislative must be interpreted in the light of the European Convention, especially when an employee exercised his or her right to freedom of opinion outside of the workplace. It is not entirely clear if this also includes freedom of expression while using social media. However, it seems like the Labour Court in a larger degree than previously, interprets the labour legislation in the light of European case law. 

It remains uncertain whether criticism made on social media may affect the Labour Court’s assessment in some aspect. For instance, it can be questioned whether an opinion about the employer expressed on Facebook or blogs are made with the main purpose of causing the employer damage or improving the working conditions in the workplace. It can also be discussed whether the degree of publicity on social media in some way differs from when employees for example give information directly to mass media.},
  author       = {Jarnér, Camilla},
  keyword      = {kritikrätt,yttrandefrihet,lojalitetsplikt,Arbetsrätt,social media},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Yttrandefrihet och lojalitetsplikt - Anställningsskyddets påverkan av sociala medier},
  year         = {2013},
}