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Panopticon: Inspärrandets utopi

Johansson, Niclas LU (2013) LAGF03 20132
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Fängelset har sedan länge varit ett mycket aktuellt ämne och är för många en symbol för brott och straff tack vare flera skildringar i litteraturens, filmens och musikens värld. Dess organisation och administration har aldrig varit självklar och fängelset har flera gånger reformerats. Ett fascinerande fängelsesystem hette Panopticon och utvecklades i slutet av 1700-talet av den brittiske filosofen Jeremy Bentham. Denna uppsats syftar till att i ett rättsutvecklingsperspektiv ta reda på vad Panopticon var och hur det såg ut i teorin och praktiken, och vad som påverkat denna utveckling. Vidare har den franske filosofen Michel Foucault med utgångspunkt i Panopticon vidareutvecklat denna idé som att den bör genomsyra hela samhällskroppen.... (More)
Fängelset har sedan länge varit ett mycket aktuellt ämne och är för många en symbol för brott och straff tack vare flera skildringar i litteraturens, filmens och musikens värld. Dess organisation och administration har aldrig varit självklar och fängelset har flera gånger reformerats. Ett fascinerande fängelsesystem hette Panopticon och utvecklades i slutet av 1700-talet av den brittiske filosofen Jeremy Bentham. Denna uppsats syftar till att i ett rättsutvecklingsperspektiv ta reda på vad Panopticon var och hur det såg ut i teorin och praktiken, och vad som påverkat denna utveckling. Vidare har den franske filosofen Michel Foucault med utgångspunkt i Panopticon vidareutvecklat denna idé som att den bör genomsyra hela samhällskroppen. Därför kommer jag även utröna hur denna vidareutveckling ser ut, vad som påverkat denna utveckling och sedan jämföra dessa två filosofers tankar.

Panopticon kom till under en förnuftsdriven tid då man letade efter alternativa straff till dödsstraffet och deporteringen. Panopticon är ett arkitektoniskt verk som möjliggör en konstant disciplinerande övervakning som innebar att den intagne skulle förändra sitt beteende då han visste att han var övervakad. Bentham såg även sitt Panopticon kunna användas för bl.a. skolor och verkstäder. För Foucault står makt- och disciplinanalyser i centrum; han menar att Panopticon besitter en sinneskontrollerande kraft som får själen till att bli kroppens fängelse. En jämförelse mellan dessa två filosofers tankar kan sammanfattas som att Benthams Panopticon endast gör anspråk på en del av samhället, medan Foucaults vidareutveckling gör anspråk på samhället i sin helhet.

Panopticon förverkligades aldrig riktigt som det ursprungligen var tänkt. Ett flertal fängelser visar dock upp både mindre och större likheter med Panopticon varav vissa är ytterst långsökta medan andra är slående lika. En cirkulär utformning av fängelset räcker dock inte; Panopticon är en förbättringsanstalt uppbyggd på övervakning och disciplin. (Less)
Abstract
The history of prisons is ancient and the prison is still a current topic. Its up-to-date popularity is most likely a product of the many tales in literature, film, and music reflecting the prison and life behind bars. The organization and administration of prisons have never been set in stone, and have lived through a number of various reforms. One fascinating prison system is the one named Panopticon developed in the late 18th century by British philosopher Jeremy Bentham. The aim of this essay is to, in a perspective of legislative development, ascertain the thoughts and ideas which has influenced Panopticon. Additionally, the French philosopher Michel Foucault has further advanced the idea of Panopticon in the way that its principles... (More)
The history of prisons is ancient and the prison is still a current topic. Its up-to-date popularity is most likely a product of the many tales in literature, film, and music reflecting the prison and life behind bars. The organization and administration of prisons have never been set in stone, and have lived through a number of various reforms. One fascinating prison system is the one named Panopticon developed in the late 18th century by British philosopher Jeremy Bentham. The aim of this essay is to, in a perspective of legislative development, ascertain the thoughts and ideas which has influenced Panopticon. Additionally, the French philosopher Michel Foucault has further advanced the idea of Panopticon in the way that its principles should pervade and extend to the most outer shell of society. Therefore I also intend to ascertain his thoughts and influences, and then finally compare the works of these two minds.

Panopticon arouse in the dawn of reason when alternative ways of punishment was sought after, especially alternatives to capital punishment and deportation. Panopticon works by a sophisticated architectural design enabling a constant disciplinary surveillance. As the inmate would be aware of the constant surveillance he would correct his behaviour. Panopticon was additionally intended by Bentham to be used as schools and workshops. In Foucault's view, analysis of power and discipline are valued high. Foucault stresses that the mind controlling powers of Panopticon makes the soul the prison of the body. A comparison of the two may be summarized as Bentham's Panopticon only claims part of society, whereas Foucault's extensive interpretation claims society in its entirety.

Panopticon never saw the light of day as it was originally intended, although several prisons have claimed to be of a panoptic design. Some of these claims are a bit far-fetched, others come rather close to the original design. A circular design of a prison is however not enough; Panopticon is a sophisticated facility composed of surveillance and discipline. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Johansson, Niclas LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20132
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
rättshistoria, panopticon, bentham, foucault, fängelse
language
Swedish
id
4228335
date added to LUP
2014-01-28 17:23:57
date last changed
2014-01-28 17:23:57
@misc{4228335,
  abstract     = {The history of prisons is ancient and the prison is still a current topic. Its up-to-date popularity is most likely a product of the many tales in literature, film, and music reflecting the prison and life behind bars. The organization and administration of prisons have never been set in stone, and have lived through a number of various reforms. One fascinating prison system is the one named Panopticon developed in the late 18th century by British philosopher Jeremy Bentham. The aim of this essay is to, in a perspective of legislative development, ascertain the thoughts and ideas which has influenced Panopticon. Additionally, the French philosopher Michel Foucault has further advanced the idea of Panopticon in the way that its principles should pervade and extend to the most outer shell of society. Therefore I also intend to ascertain his thoughts and influences, and then finally compare the works of these two minds.

Panopticon arouse in the dawn of reason when alternative ways of punishment was sought after, especially alternatives to capital punishment and deportation. Panopticon works by a sophisticated architectural design enabling a constant disciplinary surveillance. As the inmate would be aware of the constant surveillance he would correct his behaviour. Panopticon was additionally intended by Bentham to be used as schools and workshops. In Foucault's view, analysis of power and discipline are valued high. Foucault stresses that the mind controlling powers of Panopticon makes the soul the prison of the body. A comparison of the two may be summarized as Bentham's Panopticon only claims part of society, whereas Foucault's extensive interpretation claims society in its entirety. 

Panopticon never saw the light of day as it was originally intended, although several prisons have claimed to be of a panoptic design. Some of these claims are a bit far-fetched, others come rather close to the original design. A circular design of a prison is however not enough; Panopticon is a sophisticated facility composed of surveillance and discipline.},
  author       = {Johansson, Niclas},
  keyword      = {rättshistoria,panopticon,bentham,foucault,fängelse},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Panopticon: Inspärrandets utopi},
  year         = {2013},
}