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Clash and Collide - Conflict of Law Issues if the Common European Sales Law Enters Into Force

Quant, Therese LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I oktober 2011 presenterade Europeiska kommissionen förslag till en ny gemensam europeisk köplag, Common European Sales Law (CESL). Lagen är tänkt att frivilligt kunna användas av konsumenter och mindre näringsidkare när de handlar över nationsgränserna. Målsättningen med CESL är att reglera de flesta tänkbara situationer som kan uppkomma vid ett internationellt köp samt innehålla alla nödvändiga konsumentskyddsregler.

Om CESL träder i kraft kommer den att bli en del av den internationella handelsrätten. Inom rättsområdet finns redan ett flertal internationella regelverk som liknar CESL, till exempel CISG, PECL, PICC och DCFR. Det är dock i huvudsak avtalsparternas nationella lagar som reglerar ett gränsöverskridande köp. När flera... (More)
I oktober 2011 presenterade Europeiska kommissionen förslag till en ny gemensam europeisk köplag, Common European Sales Law (CESL). Lagen är tänkt att frivilligt kunna användas av konsumenter och mindre näringsidkare när de handlar över nationsgränserna. Målsättningen med CESL är att reglera de flesta tänkbara situationer som kan uppkomma vid ett internationellt köp samt innehålla alla nödvändiga konsumentskyddsregler.

Om CESL träder i kraft kommer den att bli en del av den internationella handelsrätten. Inom rättsområdet finns redan ett flertal internationella regelverk som liknar CESL, till exempel CISG, PECL, PICC och DCFR. Det är dock i huvudsak avtalsparternas nationella lagar som reglerar ett gränsöverskridande köp. När flera nationella lagar är tillämpliga samtidigt måste lagvalsregler bestämma vilken som ska gälla. Inom EU är Rom I- och Rom II-förordningen de centrala lagvalsreglerna.

För att CESL ska kunna vara kompatibel med den internationella privaträtten måste lagen tydligt ange hur den ska förhålla sig dels till nuvarande lagvalsregler, dels till materiella bestämmelser som den riskerar att kollidera med. Även om dessa förhållanden har angivits i CESL, är många kritiska till redogörelsen och hävdar att oklarheter kommer att skapa lagkonflikter om CESL antas.

I denna uppsats har följande undersökts: nuvarande lagvalsregler i EU, materiella bestämmelser som riskerar att kollidera med CESL, förslaget om CESL samt de tre mest omdebatterade potentiella lagkonflikterna avseende CESL. Mot denna bakgrund kan följande konstateras om vilka som är de mest centrala lagkonflikterna som kan uppstå om CESL träder i kraft:

Gällande relationen mellan CESL och nuvarande lagvalsregler kan det fastställas att CESL tillämpas genom lagvalsregler, främst Rom I-förordningen. Denna tillämpning kommer främst att skapa två problem gällande lagkonflikter. Det första problemet är om ett icke EU-lands lag blir tillämplig, på grund av lagvalsregler, riskerar avtalsparternas val av CESL att bli ogiltigt. Utfallet beror på de internationella privaträttsliga regler som finns idag och visar att CESL inte är fullt kompatibel med nuvarande lagvalsbestämmelser. Det andra problemet uppstår i och med oklarheten hur CESL förhåller sig till diverse tvingande regler inom EU. Rom I- och Rom II-förordningen anger att tvingande regler har företräde framför den lag som förordningarna utser som gällande, men det anser inte CESL. Trots detta anger CESL att Rom-förordningarnas bestämmelser gäller fullt ut inom CESL:s tillämpningsområde, vilket är motsägelsefullt.

Beträffande CESL och materiella bestämmelser som förslaget riskerar att kollidera med, kan det konstateras att de flesta av dessa bestämmelser inte kommer att orsaka lagkonflikter med CESL. Anledningen är att de är valbara och därmed endast tillämpliga samtidigt som CESL om parterna gjort ett aktivt val att använda dem. Det spelar således ingen roll om de materiella bestämmelserna har samma innehåll eller samma tillämpningsområde som CESL. De kommer inte att kollidera med CESL så länge parterna inte tillämpar dem. Det enda materiella regelverk som förutspås kollidera med CESL är CISG, eftersom CISG tillämpas automatiskt. Problemet är att CESL anger att så fort lagen tillämpas, är CISG inte längre tillämplig. Ståndpunkten har kriterats i den juridiska debatten för att vara ogiltig. Även om den skulle vara giltig, kvarstår frågor om i vilken utsträckning CISG blir bortvald. Lagkonflikter kommer med andra ord att uppstå oavsett om CESL:s bestämmelse om CISG är giltig eller inte.

Det kan konstateras att flertalet lagkonflikter sannolikt kommer att uppstå om CESL antas. Många förslag har presenterats i den juridiska debatten om hur dessa konflikter skulle kunna lösas, men troligen kommer de aldrig att kunna lösas fullt ut. Det internationella rättsområde som CESL vill verka inom är alltför komplicerat. Frågan blir därmed om fördelarna med att anta CESL kommer överväga nackdelarna, såsom att lagkonflikter kommer uppstå. Troligtvis kommer nackdelarna att överväga. (Less)
Abstract
In October 2011, the Commission presented a proposal for a Common European Sales Law (CESL), an optional regulatory framework available to both consumers and professional traders within the EU. The objective of the proposal is to facilitate engagement in cross-border commerce for consumers and small traders. All provisions relevant for an international transaction are included, as well as a complete set of consumer protection rules.

If the CESL becomes adopted, it will enter into force in the complex area of international trade law. Here, several frameworks similar to the CESL already exist. The CISG, the PECL, the PICC and the DCFR are some examples. However, this type of transaction is mainly covered by the contracting parties’... (More)
In October 2011, the Commission presented a proposal for a Common European Sales Law (CESL), an optional regulatory framework available to both consumers and professional traders within the EU. The objective of the proposal is to facilitate engagement in cross-border commerce for consumers and small traders. All provisions relevant for an international transaction are included, as well as a complete set of consumer protection rules.

If the CESL becomes adopted, it will enter into force in the complex area of international trade law. Here, several frameworks similar to the CESL already exist. The CISG, the PECL, the PICC and the DCFR are some examples. However, this type of transaction is mainly covered by the contracting parties’ domestic laws. Whenever more than one domestic law applies, conflict rules are used to decide which one is applicable. Within the EU, the Rome I Regulation and the Rome II Regulation are the main regulations dealing with conflict.

In order for the CESL to function within the area of private international law, the proposal must address both current conflict rules and substantive provisions with which it may collide. Although this has allegedly been achieved with the CESL, critics have not been satisfied, claiming that this lack of clarity would result in clashes of conflicting laws if the CESL were to be adopted.

In this thesis, the following areas have been examined: current EU conflict rules, substantive provisions similar to the CESL, the CESL proposal and the three most debated conflict issues regarding the CESL. The following can thus be concluded regarding the most central conflict of law issues expected to arise if the CESL enters into force:

Regarding the relationship between the CESL and current conflict rules, it can be stated that the CESL applies via the Rome Regulations or other conflict rules that apply. This application will create two main conflict issues. The first is if a third state becomes involved in a situation where the CESL applies, the parties’ choice to use the CESL will risk becoming void. This is how private international law is structured. The CESL is thereby not fully compliant with current conflict rules. The second problem is the uncertainty regarding how the CESL relates to different mandatory provisions in the EU. In the Rome Regulations, these mandatory provisions are stated as superior to the law that otherwise applies to situation, however, this is not stated in the CESL. Nevertheless, the CESL declares that the Rome Regulations should apply within its scope. Here, the proposal contradicts itself.

Concerning the CESL and similar substantive provisions, it is evident that there will be relatively little incompatibility if the CESL enters into force. The reason for this is that the majority of these provisions are optional. Therefore, it does not matter if they have the same scope of application as the CESL nor contain the same rules. No conflicts will occur as long as the parties do not actively opt-in to these substantive rules. The only substantive law likely to cause conflicts with the CESL is the CISG. The main issue in the relationship between the CESL and CISG is the declaration in the CESL stating that whenever the CESL applies, the CISG no longer does. This opt-out of the CISG has been argued to be invalid. If it were to indeed be invalid, the question would be as to which framework would be superior. However, if the opt-out provision is valid the question is rather as to what extent the CISG is eliminated.

From a wider perspective, it can be concluded that several conflict of law issues are likely occur if the CESL enters into force. Many suggestions have been presented in the academic discourse on how to solve them. Several alterations could be made to the CESL in order to minimise the creation of conflict issues. However, conflicts will most likely still occur. This is unavoidable when adding legislation to an already well-regulated and highly complex area of law. The question is therefore whether the benefits of adopting the CESL will outweigh the conflict issues its adoption will create. The answer to this is most likely negative. (Less)
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author
Quant, Therese LU
supervisor
organization
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Private International Law
language
English
id
4228622
date added to LUP
2014-01-29 07:14:28
date last changed
2014-01-29 07:14:28
@misc{4228622,
  abstract     = {In October 2011, the Commission presented a proposal for a Common European Sales Law (CESL), an optional regulatory framework available to both consumers and professional traders within the EU. The objective of the proposal is to facilitate engagement in cross-border commerce for consumers and small traders. All provisions relevant for an international transaction are included, as well as a complete set of consumer protection rules. 

If the CESL becomes adopted, it will enter into force in the complex area of international trade law. Here, several frameworks similar to the CESL already exist. The CISG, the PECL, the PICC and the DCFR are some examples. However, this type of transaction is mainly covered by the contracting parties’ domestic laws. Whenever more than one domestic law applies, conflict rules are used to decide which one is applicable. Within the EU, the Rome I Regulation and the Rome II Regulation are the main regulations dealing with conflict. 

In order for the CESL to function within the area of private international law, the proposal must address both current conflict rules and substantive provisions with which it may collide. Although this has allegedly been achieved with the CESL, critics have not been satisfied, claiming that this lack of clarity would result in clashes of conflicting laws if the CESL were to be adopted. 

In this thesis, the following areas have been examined: current EU conflict rules, substantive provisions similar to the CESL, the CESL proposal and the three most debated conflict issues regarding the CESL. The following can thus be concluded regarding the most central conflict of law issues expected to arise if the CESL enters into force: 

Regarding the relationship between the CESL and current conflict rules, it can be stated that the CESL applies via the Rome Regulations or other conflict rules that apply. This application will create two main conflict issues. The first is if a third state becomes involved in a situation where the CESL applies, the parties’ choice to use the CESL will risk becoming void. This is how private international law is structured. The CESL is thereby not fully compliant with current conflict rules. The second problem is the uncertainty regarding how the CESL relates to different mandatory provisions in the EU. In the Rome Regulations, these mandatory provisions are stated as superior to the law that otherwise applies to situation, however, this is not stated in the CESL. Nevertheless, the CESL declares that the Rome Regulations should apply within its scope. Here, the proposal contradicts itself. 

Concerning the CESL and similar substantive provisions, it is evident that there will be relatively little incompatibility if the CESL enters into force. The reason for this is that the majority of these provisions are optional. Therefore, it does not matter if they have the same scope of application as the CESL nor contain the same rules. No conflicts will occur as long as the parties do not actively opt-in to these substantive rules. The only substantive law likely to cause conflicts with the CESL is the CISG. The main issue in the relationship between the CESL and CISG is the declaration in the CESL stating that whenever the CESL applies, the CISG no longer does. This opt-out of the CISG has been argued to be invalid. If it were to indeed be invalid, the question would be as to which framework would be superior. However, if the opt-out provision is valid the question is rather as to what extent the CISG is eliminated. 

From a wider perspective, it can be concluded that several conflict of law issues are likely occur if the CESL enters into force. Many suggestions have been presented in the academic discourse on how to solve them. Several alterations could be made to the CESL in order to minimise the creation of conflict issues. However, conflicts will most likely still occur. This is unavoidable when adding legislation to an already well-regulated and highly complex area of law. The question is therefore whether the benefits of adopting the CESL will outweigh the conflict issues its adoption will create. The answer to this is most likely negative.},
  author       = {Quant, Therese},
  keyword      = {Private International Law},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Clash and Collide - Conflict of Law Issues if the Common European Sales Law Enters Into Force},
  year         = {2013},
}