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Människohandel för sexuella ändamål - en analys av den svenska regleringen i teori och praktik

Wallenberg, Lina LU (2013) LAGF03 20132
Faculty of Law
Department of Law
Abstract
Human trafficking is a global phenomenon that occurs all over the world. Sweden is by no means spared from this cynical practice. On the contrary, the country has shown to be a lucrative market for traffickers. A reason for this is the major demand for the services that trafficking provides, especially those of a sexual nature. This presentation examines the legal construction of the human trafficking prohibition in Swedish law and how this has been applied in practice. It also reviews the changes made in the human trafficking Act and the legal arguments put forward in support of them. The examination is limited to human trafficking for sexual purposes regarding adults.

In 2002, human trafficking for sexual purposes was introduced as a... (More)
Human trafficking is a global phenomenon that occurs all over the world. Sweden is by no means spared from this cynical practice. On the contrary, the country has shown to be a lucrative market for traffickers. A reason for this is the major demand for the services that trafficking provides, especially those of a sexual nature. This presentation examines the legal construction of the human trafficking prohibition in Swedish law and how this has been applied in practice. It also reviews the changes made in the human trafficking Act and the legal arguments put forward in support of them. The examination is limited to human trafficking for sexual purposes regarding adults.

In 2002, human trafficking for sexual purposes was introduced as a specific criminal offense in Swedish law. Perhaps the biggest reason behind the introduction of the Act was the deficiencies believed to exist in the way, in which trafficking was prosecuted. With a new Act, tailored to the particular character of the crime, Sweden wanted to take up the fight against trafficking. The Act was designed in close accordance with the tripartite model expressed in the Palermo Protocol, consisting of the three components undue means – trade act – particular purpose.

On two occasions, the Act has been subject to modification. In my opinion, it is possible to determine two main forces behind these changes. One type of changes refers to Sweden's desire and duty to adapt to its international agreements. These arguments were particularly clear when the provision was expanded in 2004. Besides making demands on the Swedish legislation, international agreements have set up a framework within which national legislation, regarding trafficking, must adhere.

The interest of a provision that is effective when it comes to national prosecution has, according to me, been another force behind the changes. When the practical application of the Act resulted in very few convictions, the design of the provision was criticized. When changing the Act in order to make it more effective, the relationship between obligations under international law, efficiency and legality has been central.

When it comes to prosecution on the basis of the Act, there are several legal challenges. To successfully prove the existence of an undue means, when carrying out the trade act, appears to be the most problematic. For means to be regarded as undue, it requires that a certain state of power, between the perpetrator and the victim, has been established. An analysis of the factors, taken account to in the legal assessments of this, has led me to the conclusion that the victims’ actions, after the arrest of the perpetrators, often are used as an indication of whether such a relationship existed during the period of the crime. This has, in turn, raised questions about various unspoken expectations of a victim of trafficking. Another factor of importance in legal cases of trafficking, I believe to be the victims’ willingness and attitude towards participating in the legal process. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Människohandel är ett globalt fenomen som förekommer över i stort sett hela världen. Sverige är på intet sätt förskonat från denna cyniska verksamhet, utan har tvärt om visats sig utgöra en lukrativ marknad för människohandlare. Detta då det finns en efterfrågan på de tjänster som verksamheten tillhandahåller, framför allt de av sexuell karaktär. I denna framställning undersöks den svenska konstruktionen av människohandelsförbudet och hur bestämmelsen kommit att tillämpas i praktiken. Här granskas även de ändringar som gjorts i människohandelsparagrafen och vilka rättsliga argument som anförts till stöd för dessa. Undersökningen är avgränsad till att avse människohandel för sexuella ändamål gällande vuxna.

År 2002 infördes... (More)
Människohandel är ett globalt fenomen som förekommer över i stort sett hela världen. Sverige är på intet sätt förskonat från denna cyniska verksamhet, utan har tvärt om visats sig utgöra en lukrativ marknad för människohandlare. Detta då det finns en efterfrågan på de tjänster som verksamheten tillhandahåller, framför allt de av sexuell karaktär. I denna framställning undersöks den svenska konstruktionen av människohandelsförbudet och hur bestämmelsen kommit att tillämpas i praktiken. Här granskas även de ändringar som gjorts i människohandelsparagrafen och vilka rättsliga argument som anförts till stöd för dessa. Undersökningen är avgränsad till att avse människohandel för sexuella ändamål gällande vuxna.

År 2002 infördes människohandel för sexuella ändamål som en specifik brottsrubricering i svensk rätt. Det kanske största motivet bakom införandet var de brister man ansåg föreligga i det sätt, på vilket verksamheten tidigare lagfördes. Genom en ny lagstiftning, anpassad efter just den brottslighetens karaktär, ville Sverige ta upp kampen mot människohandel. Med internationell förebild lät man förbudet bygga på den tredelade modell som kommit till uttryck i Palermoprotokollet, vilken består av otillbörligt medel – handelsåtgärd – visst syfte.

Vid två tillfällen har paragrafen varit föremål för ändring. Enligt min mening går det att utröna två huvudsakliga drivkrafter bakom dessa ändringar. Den ena typen av ändringar hänför sig till Sveriges vilja och plikt att anpassa sig till sina internationella överenskommelser. Dessa argument var särskilt tydliga när bestämmelsen vidgades 2004. Förutom att ställa krav på den svenska lagstiftningen har de internationella överenskommelserna även satt upp ramar, inom vilka den nationella lagstiftningen, gällande människohandel, måste hålla sig.

Intresset av en bestämmelse som främjar en effektiv nationell lagföring har, enligt mig, varit en annan drivkraft bakom ändringarna. Då den praktiska tillämpningen av människohandelsbrottet resulterat i väldigt få fällande domar, har kritik riktats mot utformningen av bestämmelsen. Vid justerandet av bestämmelsen i ett effektiviseringssyfte har förhållandet mellan folkrättsliga förpliktelser, effektivitet och legalitet varit centralt.

När det kommer till lagföring med utgångspunkt i bestämmelsen finns en rad rättsliga utmaningar. Att lyckas styrka förekomsten av ett otillbörligt medel, vid företagandet av handelsåtgärder, synes vara det mest problematiska. För att ett medel skall anses otillbörligt, krävs att ett maktförhållande av tillräcklig dignitet är etablerat mellan gärningsman och offer. En analys av de omständigheter som vägs in i denna bedömning leder mig till slutsatsen att ett offers agerande, efter gripandet av gärningsmännen, ofta används som en indikation på huruvida det förelegat ett maktförhållande under själva gärningsperioden. Detta har i sin tur väckt frågor kring olika outtalade förväntningar på ett offer i människohandelsprocesser. En annan faktor av betydelse i människohandelsmål bedömer jag vara brottsoffrens vilja och inställning till att medverka i den rättsliga processen. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Wallenberg, Lina LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20132
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, människohandel, human trafficking, criminal law.
language
Swedish
id
4228720
date added to LUP
2014-01-30 14:31:44
date last changed
2014-01-30 14:31:44
@misc{4228720,
  abstract     = {Human trafficking is a global phenomenon that occurs all over the world. Sweden is by no means spared from this cynical practice. On the contrary, the country has shown to be a lucrative market for traffickers. A reason for this is the major demand for the services that trafficking provides, especially those of a sexual nature. This presentation examines the legal construction of the human trafficking prohibition in Swedish law and how this has been applied in practice. It also reviews the changes made in the human trafficking Act and the legal arguments put forward in support of them. The examination is limited to human trafficking for sexual purposes regarding adults.

In 2002, human trafficking for sexual purposes was introduced as a specific criminal offense in Swedish law. Perhaps the biggest reason behind the introduction of the Act was the deficiencies believed to exist in the way, in which trafficking was prosecuted. With a new Act, tailored to the particular character of the crime, Sweden wanted to take up the fight against trafficking. The Act was designed in close accordance with the tripartite model expressed in the Palermo Protocol, consisting of the three components undue means – trade act – particular purpose. 

On two occasions, the Act has been subject to modification. In my opinion, it is possible to determine two main forces behind these changes. One type of changes refers to Sweden's desire and duty to adapt to its international agreements. These arguments were particularly clear when the provision was expanded in 2004. Besides making demands on the Swedish legislation, international agreements have set up a framework within which national legislation, regarding trafficking, must adhere.

The interest of a provision that is effective when it comes to national prosecution has, according to me, been another force behind the changes. When the practical application of the Act resulted in very few convictions, the design of the provision was criticized. When changing the Act in order to make it more effective, the relationship between obligations under international law, efficiency and legality has been central.

When it comes to prosecution on the basis of the Act, there are several legal challenges. To successfully prove the existence of an undue means, when carrying out the trade act, appears to be the most problematic. For means to be regarded as undue, it requires that a certain state of power, between the perpetrator and the victim, has been established. An analysis of the factors, taken account to in the legal assessments of this, has led me to the conclusion that the victims’ actions, after the arrest of the perpetrators, often are used as an indication of whether such a relationship existed during the period of the crime. This has, in turn, raised questions about various unspoken expectations of a victim of trafficking. Another factor of importance in legal cases of trafficking, I believe to be the victims’ willingness and attitude towards participating in the legal process.},
  author       = {Wallenberg, Lina},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,människohandel,human trafficking,criminal law.},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Människohandel för sexuella ändamål - en analys av den svenska regleringen i teori och praktik},
  year         = {2013},
}