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Internationella vårdnadstvister - om domsrätt, lagval, erkännande och verkställighet

Brolin, Johanna LU (2013) LAGF03 20132
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Den internationella privat- och processrätten är ett område vilket främst styrs genom internationella överenskommelser mellan länder.
Syftet med detta arbete har varit att undersöka några av de överenskommelser vilka blir giltiga på internationella vårdnadstvister. Fokus har lagts på sådana vilka gäller inom EU, norden samt rent autonoma rättsregler och belyses ur ett svenskt perspektiv. Den metod och det material vilket har använts är främst undersökningar av lagtext, förarbeten, rättspraxis och diverse doktrin. Den rättsdogmatiska metoden har varit vägledande.

Problematik som berörts är domstols behörighet att döma i frågor om vårdnadstvister, val av lag i den behöriga domstolen samt huruvida en dom från en annan stat kan erkännas... (More)
Den internationella privat- och processrätten är ett område vilket främst styrs genom internationella överenskommelser mellan länder.
Syftet med detta arbete har varit att undersöka några av de överenskommelser vilka blir giltiga på internationella vårdnadstvister. Fokus har lagts på sådana vilka gäller inom EU, norden samt rent autonoma rättsregler och belyses ur ett svenskt perspektiv. Den metod och det material vilket har använts är främst undersökningar av lagtext, förarbeten, rättspraxis och diverse doktrin. Den rättsdogmatiska metoden har varit vägledande.

Problematik som berörts är domstols behörighet att döma i frågor om vårdnadstvister, val av lag i den behöriga domstolen samt huruvida en dom från en annan stat kan erkännas eller verkställas i Sverige. Däremot har frågor om olovliga bortföranden av barn utelämnats från detta arbete, trots dess ofta nära anknytning till internationella vårdnadstvister. Anledningen till att detta inte behandlats i närmre bemärkelse är att arbetet då skulle blivit alltför omfattande.
I januari 2013 infördes Haagkonventionen den 19 oktober 1996 om behörighet, tillämplig lag, erkännande, verkställighet och samarbete i frågor om föräldraansvar och åtgärder till skydd för barn; i Sverige. Denna syftar b.la. till att ytterligare utvidga skyddet för barn i internationella vårdnadsmål. Detta arbete belyser av denna anledning skillnader och likheter mellan denna konvention och andra bestämmelser inom området.
De huvudlinjer man kan urskilja är att det gällande domsrätt är barnets hemvist som ska vara styrande för vilken domstol som ska vara behörig att döma i vårdnadsfrågan. Enligt såväl de nordiska som de autonoma rättsreglerna (fram till tillämpningen av HaagK) kan vårdnadsmål endast tas upp i samband med äktenskapsmål. De vårdnadstvister uppkomna före den 1 januari 2013 utan samband med äktenskapsmål ska bedömas enligt av domstolen uppställda behörighetsregler. Detta kan till synes kunna leda till viss rättsosäkerhet.
EU-länder, förutom Danmark, tillämpar Bryssel II förordningen, vilken ger domstol behörighet baserad på barns hemvist i medlemsstat. Även HaagK har dessa domsrättsregler som utgångspunkt.

I valet av lag är huvudprincipen att barnets lex domicilii är avgörande. Det finns ingen större skillnad vad gäller dessa bestämmelser varför det saknas anledning att redogöra närmre för vilken överenskommelse som stadgar vad. Nämnas kan dock att Bryssel II helt saknar lagvalsregler.

En utländsk dom ska enligt Bryssel II, HaagK och NEVL erkännas i Sverige om den härstammar från därtill anslutna stater. Dock har genom rättspraxis framkommit att domar och beslut om vårdnad från icke anslutna stater inte får någon effekt här i landet.

Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att det finns en uppsjö av olika regleringar på området internationella vårdnadstvister. Dessa är inte helt lätt att som privatperson förstå sig på, men det kan ses som positivt att det i alla fall existerar sådana regleringar.
Genom införandet av HaagK har det i min mening skett en positiv utveckling i att det nu finns autonom reglering även gällande utomäktenskapliga vårdnadstvister. Dessutom är fler stater anslutna till denna konvention än till Bryssel II, vilket gör att kontrollen av vårdnadstvister mellan dessa länder bör kunna fungera på ett bättre och mindre komplicerat sätt. (Less)
Abstract
Today is a new world. Globalization has continued to be embraced by modern society. This trend has encouraged international integration and subsequently alleviated our cultural and geographical boarders. In this new world, a globalized world, forming a relationship with someone from a different country to that of your origin is no longer an uncommon occurrence. In Sweden alone some 17% of the male and 10% of the female inhabitants are married to a non-native; these figures exclude couples living outside marriage. This is, in my opinion, a tremendous phenomenon that continues to be accepted and encouraged, however, rarely investigated from a consequential legal prospective. In reality, when it comes to custody disputes over children, these... (More)
Today is a new world. Globalization has continued to be embraced by modern society. This trend has encouraged international integration and subsequently alleviated our cultural and geographical boarders. In this new world, a globalized world, forming a relationship with someone from a different country to that of your origin is no longer an uncommon occurrence. In Sweden alone some 17% of the male and 10% of the female inhabitants are married to a non-native; these figures exclude couples living outside marriage. This is, in my opinion, a tremendous phenomenon that continues to be accepted and encouraged, however, rarely investigated from a consequential legal prospective. In reality, when it comes to custody disputes over children, these types of relationships can become problematic. With this essay, I hope to shed some light on the problems occurring in relation to specific situations whereby I try to explain the advantages and disadvantages with the different conventions and the relevance of laws. The questions that will be answered are as follows: What country will have jurisdiction over the matter? Which country’s law is applicable? Once there is a court order from one court, will it be valid in a different country?
The essay is written predominantly from a Swedish perspective, but also focuses on International, EU and Nordic treaties and agreements.
Although interesting and of high importance to many problems within this area, there are no further analysis into the difficulties of one parent illegally abducting their child to a different country. This is solely due to the extensive nature of investigation that is required which is unfortunately limited by the size of this paper. Nor is for the same reason the subject treated in a purely national aspect.
Agreements and laws that will be treated include, the Brussels IIa 2201/2003 regulation, the 1996 Hague convention, Nordic agreements and Swedish laws on the subject conflict of laws regarding custody disputes. A comparison will be made and differences be highlighted. The 1996 Hague Convention was only recently implemented in Swedish law system and can only be applied on disputes arisen after the 1st of January 2013.

The results of this paper regarding which court has jurisdiction, is that the main aspect that decides whether a court should be the right forum is decided by the child´s domicile. International custody disputes over a child can only be raised in relation to another case regarding divorce, according to Nordic as well as the autonomous Swedish rules (before the implementation of the 1996 Hague Convention). Regarding cases without involvement of divorce elements there were no set rules before the implementation of the 1996 Hague Convention in Sweden, which means that it was up to the national courts to decide whether there was jurisdiction or not. Brussels IIa is applicable between EU- members, except Denmark, and bases jurisdiction upon a child’s domicile, as does the 1996 Hague Convention.
The child’s lex domicilii is of highest importance when deciding applicable law. Brussels IIa however completely lacks regulations on this subject.
A verdict or decision regarding custody from a country connected to the Brussels IIa, 1996 Hague Convention and Nordic agreement is implemented in Sweden as if it was a decision made by their national court. Regarding other countries’ decisions these will not be recognised in Swedish court. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Brolin, Johanna LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20132
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Komparativ rätt, Internationell privaträtt, Private international law, Comparative law, Internationella vårdnadstvister, Domsrätt, Lagval, Erkännande och verkställighet, 1996 års Haagkonvention
language
Swedish
id
4228867
date added to LUP
2014-02-02 14:07:03
date last changed
2014-02-02 14:07:03
@misc{4228867,
  abstract     = {Today is a new world. Globalization has continued to be embraced by modern society. This trend has encouraged international integration and subsequently alleviated our cultural and geographical boarders. In this new world, a globalized world, forming a relationship with someone from a different country to that of your origin is no longer an uncommon occurrence. In Sweden alone some 17% of the male and 10% of the female inhabitants are married to a non-native; these figures exclude couples living outside marriage. This is, in my opinion, a tremendous phenomenon that continues to be accepted and encouraged, however, rarely investigated from a consequential legal prospective. In reality, when it comes to custody disputes over children, these types of relationships can become problematic. With this essay, I hope to shed some light on the problems occurring in relation to specific situations whereby I try to explain the advantages and disadvantages with the different conventions and the relevance of laws. The questions that will be answered are as follows: What country will have jurisdiction over the matter? Which country’s law is applicable? Once there is a court order from one court, will it be valid in a different country? 
The essay is written predominantly from a Swedish perspective, but also focuses on International, EU and Nordic treaties and agreements.
Although interesting and of high importance to many problems within this area, there are no further analysis into the difficulties of one parent illegally abducting their child to a different country. This is solely due to the extensive nature of investigation that is required which is unfortunately limited by the size of this paper. Nor is for the same reason the subject treated in a purely national aspect. 
Agreements and laws that will be treated include, the Brussels IIa 2201/2003 regulation, the 1996 Hague convention, Nordic agreements and Swedish laws on the subject conflict of laws regarding custody disputes. A comparison will be made and differences be highlighted. The 1996 Hague Convention was only recently implemented in Swedish law system and can only be applied on disputes arisen after the 1st of January 2013.

The results of this paper regarding which court has jurisdiction, is that the main aspect that decides whether a court should be the right forum is decided by the child´s domicile. International custody disputes over a child can only be raised in relation to another case regarding divorce, according to Nordic as well as the autonomous Swedish rules (before the implementation of the 1996 Hague Convention). Regarding cases without involvement of divorce elements there were no set rules before the implementation of the 1996 Hague Convention in Sweden, which means that it was up to the national courts to decide whether there was jurisdiction or not. Brussels IIa is applicable between EU- members, except Denmark, and bases jurisdiction upon a child’s domicile, as does the 1996 Hague Convention. 
The child’s lex domicilii is of highest importance when deciding applicable law. Brussels IIa however completely lacks regulations on this subject.
A verdict or decision regarding custody from a country connected to the Brussels IIa, 1996 Hague Convention and Nordic agreement is implemented in Sweden as if it was a decision made by their national court. Regarding other countries’ decisions these will not be recognised in Swedish court.},
  author       = {Brolin, Johanna},
  keyword      = {Komparativ rätt,Internationell privaträtt,Private international law,Comparative law,Internationella vårdnadstvister,Domsrätt,Lagval,Erkännande och verkställighet,1996 års Haagkonvention},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Internationella vårdnadstvister - om domsrätt, lagval, erkännande och verkställighet},
  year         = {2013},
}