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Våldtäkt: ur ett rättsutvecklingsperspektiv. - Är nästa steg en samtyckesreglering?

Andersson, Viktoria LU (2013) LAGF03 20132
Faculty of Law
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning
Våldtäkt har sedan länge varit kriminaliserat, men dess innebörd och syftet bakom kriminaliseringen har varierat. Under 1800-talets slut var det främsta syftet att upprätthålla familjens, i synnerhet mannens, ära. Inte förrän 1965 blev våldtäkt inom äktenskap kriminaliserat, då kvinnans sexuella integritet ställdes i fokus.
Därefter förstärktes den sexuella integriteten ytterligare genom att utvidga 6 kap. 1 § 2 st. BrB till att omfatta de fall då en person befunnit sig i ett hjälplöst tillstånd. Vidare utvidgades samma stycke, endast åtta år senare, till att omfatta även personer som befunnit sig i en särskilt utsatt situation. Med denna utvidgning avsåg lagstiftaren att varje individ skulle uppnå ett fullgott skydd mot... (More)
Sammanfattning
Våldtäkt har sedan länge varit kriminaliserat, men dess innebörd och syftet bakom kriminaliseringen har varierat. Under 1800-talets slut var det främsta syftet att upprätthålla familjens, i synnerhet mannens, ära. Inte förrän 1965 blev våldtäkt inom äktenskap kriminaliserat, då kvinnans sexuella integritet ställdes i fokus.
Därefter förstärktes den sexuella integriteten ytterligare genom att utvidga 6 kap. 1 § 2 st. BrB till att omfatta de fall då en person befunnit sig i ett hjälplöst tillstånd. Vidare utvidgades samma stycke, endast åtta år senare, till att omfatta även personer som befunnit sig i en särskilt utsatt situation. Med denna utvidgning avsåg lagstiftaren att varje individ skulle uppnå ett fullgott skydd mot sexuella handlingar. Samtidigt diskuterades om en samtyckesreglering skulle ersätta våldtäktslagstiftningen. Det skulle innebära att kravet på tvång eller utnyttjande slopades och istället skulle lagstiftningen grunda sig på bristande samtycke.
Förespråkarna av en samtyckesreglering menar bl.a. att den sexuella integriteten skulle ges ett starkare skydd genom att lagstiftningen tydligt markerar att sexuella handlingar kräver båda parters frivillighet. Fokus skulle riktas mot den tilltalade för att utreda om och i så fall hur hen försäkrade sig om att samtycke förelåg. Vidare skulle det vara en naturlig följd på rättsutvecklingen. Somliga hävdar t.o.m. att Sverige är förpliktade att införa en samtyckesreglering för att inte bryta mot EKMR.
Motståndarna till en samtyckesreglering ser svårigheter i att definiera begreppet samtycke; vad som ska anses vara ett juridiskt giltigt sådant. Vidare skulle en samtyckesreglering medföra bevissvårigheter. Dessutom anförs att fokus skulle riktas mer mot offrets agerande i än högre grad än idag, för att utreda hur offret markerade sin ofrivillighet att delta.
Uppsatsen syfte har varit att ta reda på om en samtyckesreglering skulle tillföra något i förhållande till nuvarande våldtäktslagstiftning. Min slutsats är att någon slags samtyckesreglering bör införas som ett komplement till nuvarande våldtäktslagstiftning, för att säkerställa ett fullgott skydd. (Less)
Abstract
Summary
Rape has been criminalized for a long time, but the meaning and intention has been shifted. During the end of 1900th century the primary intention was to enforce the honour of the family, particularly that of the man. Not until 1965 rape became criminalized within marriage, as the sexual integrity of women came into focus.
Subsequently the sexual integrity was enhanced by expanding 6 chapter 1 § 2 st. BrB to hold even the cases when a person is in a helpless situation. Further on the same paragraph was expanded, only eight years later, to even cover persons in an especially vulnerable situation. Through this the legislator’s intention was for all to have an adequate protection against sexual actions. At the same time, there was... (More)
Summary
Rape has been criminalized for a long time, but the meaning and intention has been shifted. During the end of 1900th century the primary intention was to enforce the honour of the family, particularly that of the man. Not until 1965 rape became criminalized within marriage, as the sexual integrity of women came into focus.
Subsequently the sexual integrity was enhanced by expanding 6 chapter 1 § 2 st. BrB to hold even the cases when a person is in a helpless situation. Further on the same paragraph was expanded, only eight years later, to even cover persons in an especially vulnerable situation. Through this the legislator’s intention was for all to have an adequate protection against sexual actions. At the same time, there was a discussion if a law based on consent should replace the law concerning rapes. That would mean that the requirement of constraint or exploitation was replaced by insufficient consent.
The promoters for a law based on consent propose that the sexual integrity would be given a stronger protection by making it clear that sexual acts require consent from both parts. Focus would be against the suspect to investigate whether of not he made sure that there was consent. Further on it would also be a natural next step of the progress of law. Some even say that Sweden are obliged to introduce a law based on consent not to breach ECHR.
The opposition against a law based on consent find difficulties with defining consent; how to make it legally valid. It would also induce difficulties with evidence. Moreover more focus than today would be on the acts of the victim, how the non-consent was shown.
The purpose of this thesis has been to investigate whether or not a law based on consent would contribute something to law we have today. I have reached the conclusion that a law based on consent should institutes as a complement for today’s law, to assure adequate protection in the field. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Andersson, Viktoria LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20132
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Straffrätt, samtycke, våldtäkt, särskilt utsatt situation, hjälplöst tillstånd, utnyttjande
language
Swedish
id
4229008
date added to LUP
2014-01-28 17:44:42
date last changed
2014-05-12 15:50:41
@misc{4229008,
  abstract     = {Summary
Rape has been criminalized for a long time, but the meaning and intention has been shifted. During the end of 1900th century the primary intention was to enforce the honour of the family, particularly that of the man. Not until 1965 rape became criminalized within marriage, as the sexual integrity of women came into focus. 
 Subsequently the sexual integrity was enhanced by expanding 6 chapter 1 § 2 st. BrB to hold even the cases when a person is in a helpless situation. Further on the same paragraph was expanded, only eight years later, to even cover persons in an especially vulnerable situation. Through this the legislator’s intention was for all to have an adequate protection against sexual actions. At the same time, there was a discussion if a law based on consent should replace the law concerning rapes. That would mean that the requirement of constraint or exploitation was replaced by insufficient consent.
 The promoters for a law based on consent propose that the sexual integrity would be given a stronger protection by making it clear that sexual acts require consent from both parts. Focus would be against the suspect to investigate whether of not he made sure that there was consent. Further on it would also be a natural next step of the progress of law. Some even say that Sweden are obliged to introduce a law based on consent not to breach ECHR. 
 The opposition against a law based on consent find difficulties with defining consent; how to make it legally valid. It would also induce difficulties with evidence. Moreover more focus than today would be on the acts of the victim, how the non-consent was shown. 
 The purpose of this thesis has been to investigate whether or not a law based on consent would contribute something to law we have today. I have reached the conclusion that a law based on consent should institutes as a complement for today’s law, to assure adequate protection in the field.},
  author       = {Andersson, Viktoria},
  keyword      = {Straffrätt,samtycke,våldtäkt,särskilt utsatt situation,hjälplöst tillstånd,utnyttjande},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Våldtäkt: ur ett rättsutvecklingsperspektiv. - Är nästa steg en samtyckesreglering?},
  year         = {2013},
}