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Upphovsrätt och olovlig fildelning - en analys av ansvar, intresseavvägningar och åtgärder i digital miljö

Nelson, Felix LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Olovligt tillgängliggörande av upphovsrättsligt skyddat material genom fildelning är ett av vår tids mest debatterade ämnen. Teknikens utveckling har gjort det möjligt för enskilda personer att snabbt och kostnadsfritt tillgodogöra sig perfekta kopior av musik och film. Detta resulterar i att kompensation uteblir för upphovsmän och deras rättighetshavare. På grund av anonymiteten på internet är det svårt att bekämpa fenomenet. I detta arbete utreds den enskilda intrångsgörarens ansvar ställt mot rättighetshavarens intressen.

Upphovsrättens viktiga roll i samhället och kulturlivet understryks i flera internationella avtal. Dess efterlevande, speciellt i digital miljö, får dock inte inverka alltför negativt på grundläggande rättigheter,... (More)
Olovligt tillgängliggörande av upphovsrättsligt skyddat material genom fildelning är ett av vår tids mest debatterade ämnen. Teknikens utveckling har gjort det möjligt för enskilda personer att snabbt och kostnadsfritt tillgodogöra sig perfekta kopior av musik och film. Detta resulterar i att kompensation uteblir för upphovsmän och deras rättighetshavare. På grund av anonymiteten på internet är det svårt att bekämpa fenomenet. I detta arbete utreds den enskilda intrångsgörarens ansvar ställt mot rättighetshavarens intressen.

Upphovsrättens viktiga roll i samhället och kulturlivet understryks i flera internationella avtal. Dess efterlevande, speciellt i digital miljö, får dock inte inverka alltför negativt på grundläggande rättigheter, exempelvis personlig integritet, rätt till privatliv, skydd av personuppgifter, informations- och yttrandefrihet. Rättighetshavare behöver tillgång till effektiva åtgärder för att stoppa intrång men fildelningens globala struktur i kombination med ett oöverskådligt antal gärningsmän har gjort denna intresseavvägning till ett svårlöst fenomen. Proportionalitetsprincipen har en central roll vid avvägningen och följer som en röd tråd genom debatten.

Sätten att fildela på utvecklas konstant och jakten på fildelare uppfattas ofta som en kamp mot tekniken. Olika tekniska strukturer gör det svårt för rättighetshavare att samla bevisning och identifiera intrångsgörare. I vissa fall är identifikation rent av omöjlig då det erbjuds tjänster som gör användare helt anonyma. Vilka aktörer man bör rikta sitt val av åtgärd mot blir därför en central fråga. Vid en analys framträder två grundläggande ståndpunkter. Enligt den ena bör man fokusera på den enskilda intrångsgöraren, annars riskerar man att respekten för upphovsrätten går förlorad. Enligt den andra tillgodoses rättighetshavarnas intressen bäst genom att åtgärderna inriktas på mellanhänder, t.ex. internetleverantörer, då dessa har möjlighet att snabbt stoppa intrång.

Intresseavvägningen har fallit ut på skilda sätt i olika delar av världen. Sverige har tenderat att vara restriktiv mot ingrepp i enskildas privatliv och integritet vilket har väckt frustration hos rättighetshavare. Civilrättsliga åtgärder i form av varningsbrev, vite och informationsföreläggande har hittills inte gett önskad effekt. Samtidigt leder knappt en bråkdel av intrången till åtal. Runt om i världen har man börjat använda sig av olika former av utbildande policy i kombination med blockering av internettrafik. Blockering framstår som en attraktiv åtgärd under förutsättning att det förordnas om genom någon typ oberoende prövning. (Less)
Abstract
Illegitimate communication of copyrighted material to the public through file sharing is one of the most debated subjects of our time. The development of technology has made it possible for individual people to quickly and free of charge assimilate music and movies in perfect condition without any compensation being paid to the creators or other rights holders. As a result of the anonymity the internet offers this issue is hard to fight. In this paper the responsibility of the individual intruder is straightened out and balanced against the interests of the rights holders.

The important role of copyright in our society and cultural life is emphasized in several international conventions. The compliance of copyright, especially in a... (More)
Illegitimate communication of copyrighted material to the public through file sharing is one of the most debated subjects of our time. The development of technology has made it possible for individual people to quickly and free of charge assimilate music and movies in perfect condition without any compensation being paid to the creators or other rights holders. As a result of the anonymity the internet offers this issue is hard to fight. In this paper the responsibility of the individual intruder is straightened out and balanced against the interests of the rights holders.

The important role of copyright in our society and cultural life is emphasized in several international conventions. The compliance of copyright, especially in a digital environment, may not however have too much of a negative impact on fundamental rights, such as personal integrity, the right to privacy, the protection of personal information, freedom of information, and freedom of speech. The rights holders are in need of effective sanctions to stop intrusions, but the global structure of file sharing combined with an almost endless number of perpetrators has made the balance of interests a phenomenon which is hard to solve. The principle of proportionality is central and follows as a main thread through the debate.

New ways to share files are developed constantly and the pursuit of file sharers is often perceived as a fight against technology. Different technical structures make it hard for rights holders to collect evidence and identify intruders. In some cases, identification is impossible since there are services making users completely anonymous. Which actor to focus the choice of sanction on is therefore a central question. Doing an analysis, two essential viewpoints evolve. According to the first one, sanctions should be focused on the individual intruder; otherwise the general respect for copyright will be lossed. The second one claims that the interests of the rights holders is best accommodated by focusing the sanctions on intermediaries, such as ISP:s, since they are in a better position to quickly stop intrusions.

The balance of interests looks different in different parts of the world. Sweden has had a tendency to have a restrictive attitude towards infringement in the privacy and personal integrity of individuals, which has led to frustration amongst rights holders. Civil sanctions such as warning letters, fines and right to information has not had the desired effects. At the same time, very few intrusions lead to prosecution. Around the world, different kinds of educational policies combined with blocking internet traffic have started to be used. Using blocking as a sanction seems to be an attractive method under the condition that it is being predecessed by some kind of hearing. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Nelson, Felix LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Copyright and illegal file sharing - an analysis of responsibility, the balance of interests, and sanctions in a digital environment
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
informationsfrihet, privatliv, integritet, åtgärder, sanktioner, IT-rätt, immaterialrätt, fildelning, civilrätt, straffrätt
language
Swedish
id
4229411
date added to LUP
2014-01-21 06:40:03
date last changed
2014-01-21 06:40:03
@misc{4229411,
  abstract     = {Illegitimate communication of copyrighted material to the public through file sharing is one of the most debated subjects of our time. The development of technology has made it possible for individual people to quickly and free of charge assimilate music and movies in perfect condition without any compensation being paid to the creators or other rights holders. As a result of the anonymity the internet offers this issue is hard to fight. In this paper the responsibility of the individual intruder is straightened out and balanced against the interests of the rights holders.

The important role of copyright in our society and cultural life is emphasized in several international conventions. The compliance of copyright, especially in a digital environment, may not however have too much of a negative impact on fundamental rights, such as personal integrity, the right to privacy, the protection of personal information, freedom of information, and freedom of speech. The rights holders are in need of effective sanctions to stop intrusions, but the global structure of file sharing combined with an almost endless number of perpetrators has made the balance of interests a phenomenon which is hard to solve. The principle of proportionality is central and follows as a main thread through the debate.

New ways to share files are developed constantly and the pursuit of file sharers is often perceived as a fight against technology. Different technical structures make it hard for rights holders to collect evidence and identify intruders. In some cases, identification is impossible since there are services making users completely anonymous. Which actor to focus the choice of sanction on is therefore a central question. Doing an analysis, two essential viewpoints evolve. According to the first one, sanctions should be focused on the individual intruder; otherwise the general respect for copyright will be lossed. The second one claims that the interests of the rights holders is best accommodated by focusing the sanctions on intermediaries, such as ISP:s, since they are in a better position to quickly stop intrusions.

The balance of interests looks different in different parts of the world. Sweden has had a tendency to have a restrictive attitude towards infringement in the privacy and personal integrity of individuals, which has led to frustration amongst rights holders. Civil sanctions such as warning letters, fines and right to information has not had the desired effects. At the same time, very few intrusions lead to prosecution. Around the world, different kinds of educational policies combined with blocking internet traffic have started to be used. Using blocking as a sanction seems to be an attractive method under the condition that it is being predecessed by some kind of hearing.},
  author       = {Nelson, Felix},
  keyword      = {informationsfrihet,privatliv,integritet,åtgärder,sanktioner,IT-rätt,immaterialrätt,fildelning,civilrätt,straffrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Upphovsrätt och olovlig fildelning - en analys av ansvar, intresseavvägningar och åtgärder i digital miljö},
  year         = {2013},
}