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Polisen - Fredsbevarare eller brottsbekämpare

Hall, Camilla LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning
Svensk polis saknade länge ett uttalat lagstöd för rätten att använda våld. De gavs i äldre lagstiftning en befogenhet att bruka nödvändigt våld för att avvärja ett livsfarligt angrepp på sig själv eller någon annan. Däremot förelåg dem ingen rätt att vid ett ingripande ta till våld.
Svensk polis ska alltid försöka hitta andra utvägar än våld för att lösa en uppgift inom ramen för sin tjänsteåtgärd. Numera har de emellertid en laga rätt att, när situationen kräver det, använda våld. Dessutom har de samma rätt som andra medborgare att hävda nödvärn, för att skydda sig själva och för att försvara andra.
Den laga befogenheten förutsätter inte att svensk polis ska använda våld, utan att de får göra det. Våldet måste vara... (More)
Sammanfattning
Svensk polis saknade länge ett uttalat lagstöd för rätten att använda våld. De gavs i äldre lagstiftning en befogenhet att bruka nödvändigt våld för att avvärja ett livsfarligt angrepp på sig själv eller någon annan. Däremot förelåg dem ingen rätt att vid ett ingripande ta till våld.
Svensk polis ska alltid försöka hitta andra utvägar än våld för att lösa en uppgift inom ramen för sin tjänsteåtgärd. Numera har de emellertid en laga rätt att, när situationen kräver det, använda våld. Dessutom har de samma rätt som andra medborgare att hävda nödvärn, för att skydda sig själva och för att försvara andra.
Den laga befogenheten förutsätter inte att svensk polis ska använda våld, utan att de får göra det. Våldet måste vara försvarligt och polisen har flera förutsättningar uttryckta i lag, och till dem bakomliggande principer att beakta vid våldsanvändning inom ramen för sin tjänsteåtgärd.

Trots uttryckliga bestämmelser som reglerar polisens våldsanvändning, och som sätter ramen för hur mycket våld som är tillåtet vid olika situationer, har anmälningsfrekvensen mot poliser som har använt obehövligt mycket våld, ökat markant. Av de anmälningar mot poliser som ökat mest, är misshandel och de fall när medborgare anser sig blivit kränkta, klart överrepresenterade i statistiken. Det är inte enkelt att ge ett entydigt svar på varför det är så, eller vad det kan bero på. Klart är att det moderna polisväsendet och den nya polisrollen som genom tid har vuxit fram, ger den enskilde polisen ett större handlingsutrymme, och som en följd därav mindre stöd i lagar och föreskrifter. Polisen måste många gånger finna stöd för sitt handlande i den egna moralen. Inom poliskåren kan den enskilde polisen finna stöd och känna kamratskap och sammanhållning.

Inom polissociologin och inom polisforskning har man länge talat om yrkeskultur, som ett begrepp för att beskriva polisen som organisation. Inom polisforskningen använder man sig av terminologin för att beskriva attityder och förhållningssätt inom polisorganisationen.
Litteraturen beskriver nyutexaminerade poliser med en stark tilltro för rätt och fel, och utrustade med de moraliska och kunskapsmässiga verktygen för att på bästa sätt bli en bra polis. Verkligheten talar om något annat. Frustration, utbrändhet och en uppgivenhet hos en trött poliskår.
För att som enskild polis kunna fatta välgrundade beslut krävs en systematisk kunskap om de olika skeenden som kan ge upphov till att hota individens trygghet. Utifrån detta ska tillgängliga resurser användas på bästa sätt. Det ställer stora krav på polisyrket, och inte sällan uppkommer situationer då polisens handlande vid ett ingripande övergår till ett otillåtet handlande där polisen således överträder sin laga befogenhet. Frågan man kan ställa sig är varför det är så? Flera faktorer kan utlösa handlingar som är att betrakta som ogenomtänkta och som inte står i proportion till varken lag eller moral. På ett individuellt plan kan en tillfällig obalans som beror på trötthet och stress vara utlösande faktorer. Det kan även härledas till en individs personlighetsdrag, hur stresstålig man är och hur man är rustad att möta ett provokativt beteende från en motpart.
Inom polisen utvecklas gemensamma normer kring vad som är acceptabelt otillåtet och i vissa fall även berömvärt. Polisorganisationens ansvar i att vara verksam för att fånga upp ett negativt beteende från polisens sida, och att kontinuerligt bedriva arbete i förebyggande syfte gynnar både polisorganisationen såväl som samhället och polisens bemötande med allmänheten. (Less)
Abstract
Summary
Swedish police lacked for a long period of time an explicit legal basis for the right to use force. They were in an older legislative powered to operate necessary force to repel a life threatening situation on himself or anyone else. However, the police had no given right to take on violence due to an intervention.
Swedish police should always try to find other ways than violence to solve a problem within its service action. Nowadays, they have a legal right to, when the situation calls for it, use force. Moreover, they have the same rights as other citizens to assert self-defense, to protect themselves and to defend others.
The power of law does not assume that Swedish police will use violence, but that they may do so. The... (More)
Summary
Swedish police lacked for a long period of time an explicit legal basis for the right to use force. They were in an older legislative powered to operate necessary force to repel a life threatening situation on himself or anyone else. However, the police had no given right to take on violence due to an intervention.
Swedish police should always try to find other ways than violence to solve a problem within its service action. Nowadays, they have a legal right to, when the situation calls for it, use force. Moreover, they have the same rights as other citizens to assert self-defense, to protect themselves and to defend others.
The power of law does not assume that Swedish police will use violence, but that they may do so. The violence must be justifiable and police have several conditions spelt out in legislation, and several underlying principles to consider in the use of force within its service action.

Despite explicit provisions governing police use of force , and that sets the framework for how much violence is permitted at various situations, notification rates of police officers using unnecessary violence, has increased significantly. One of the complaints against police officers which has increased the most, the beatings and the cases when citizens feel they have been wronged, are clearly over-represented in the statistics. It's not easy to give a clear answer on why this is so, or whatever it may be due to. It is clear that the modern police force and the new police role through time have emerged, giving the individual the police greater latitude, and consequently less support in laws and regulations. The police must often find support for their actions in their own morality. Within the police force, the individual police find support and feel the camaraderie and cohesion.

Police sociology and police research people have discussed the professional culture, as a term to describe the police as an organization. The police research makes use of the culture terminology to describe attitudes and approaches within the police organization.
The literature describes newly qualified police officers with a strong belief in right and wrong, and equipped with the moral and knowledge tools to the best way to become a good police officer. The facts speak otherwise. Frustration, burnout and a resignation of a tired police force due to unreasonable long working hours and the lack of rest in between the work shifts, is common facts.
To that individual police informed decision-making requires a systematic understanding of the various events which could give rise to threaten an individual's safety. Based on this, the available resources are most effectively used. This places great demands on the police force, and often arises situations where the police action during an intervention turns into non acceptable action thus violating their legal authority. To that individual police informed decision-making requires a systematic understanding of the various events which could give rise to threaten an individual's safety. Based on this, the available resources are most effectively used. This places great demands on the police force, and often arises situations where the police action during an intervention turns into non acceptable action thus violating their legal authority. The question to be asked is why this is so? Several factors can trigger actions that are considered to be ill-conceived and not in proportion to neither law nor morality. On an individual level, a temporary imbalance caused by fatigue and stress can be triggers. It can also be traced to an individual's personality traits, how stress you are and how you are equipped to meet the provocative behavior of a counterparty.
The police develop common standards on what is acceptable unauthorized and in some cases even praiseworthy. Police Organisation's responsibility to be active in order to capture a negative behavior by the police, and to continuously pursue work as a preventive measure benefits both the police organization as well as the community and the police response to the public. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Hall, Camilla LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Police - Peacekeepers or law enforcement
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
yrkeskultur, Polis, våldsanvändning
language
Swedish
id
4229434
date added to LUP
2014-03-11 13:27:58
date last changed
2014-03-11 13:27:58
@misc{4229434,
  abstract     = {Summary
Swedish police lacked for a long period of time an explicit legal basis for the right to use force. They were in an older legislative powered to operate necessary force to repel a life threatening situation on himself or anyone else. However, the police had no given right to take on violence due to an intervention.
Swedish police should always try to find other ways than violence to solve a problem within its service action. Nowadays, they have a legal right to, when the situation calls for it, use force. Moreover, they have the same rights as other citizens to assert self-defense, to protect themselves and to defend others.
The power of law does not assume that Swedish police will use violence, but that they may do so. The violence must be justifiable and police have several conditions spelt out in legislation, and several underlying principles to consider in the use of force within its service action.

Despite explicit provisions governing police use of force , and that sets the framework for how much violence is permitted at various situations, notification rates of police officers using unnecessary violence, has increased significantly. One of the complaints against police officers which has increased the most, the beatings and the cases when citizens feel they have been wronged, are clearly over-represented in the statistics. It's not easy to give a clear answer on why this is so, or whatever it may be due to. It is clear that the modern police force and the new police role through time have emerged, giving the individual the police greater latitude, and consequently less support in laws and regulations. The police must often find support for their actions in their own morality. Within the police force, the individual police find support and feel the camaraderie and cohesion.

Police sociology and police research people have discussed the professional culture, as a term to describe the police as an organization. The police research makes use of the culture terminology to describe attitudes and approaches within the police organization.
The literature describes newly qualified police officers with a strong belief in right and wrong, and equipped with the moral and knowledge tools to the best way to become a good police officer. The facts speak otherwise. Frustration, burnout and a resignation of a tired police force due to unreasonable long working hours and the lack of rest in between the work shifts, is common facts. 
To that individual police informed decision-making requires a systematic understanding of the various events which could give rise to threaten an individual's safety. Based on this, the available resources are most effectively used. This places great demands on the police force, and often arises situations where the police action during an intervention turns into non acceptable action thus violating their legal authority. To that individual police informed decision-making requires a systematic understanding of the various events which could give rise to threaten an individual's safety. Based on this, the available resources are most effectively used. This places great demands on the police force, and often arises situations where the police action during an intervention turns into non acceptable action thus violating their legal authority. The question to be asked is why this is so? Several factors can trigger actions that are considered to be ill-conceived and not in proportion to neither law nor morality. On an individual level, a temporary imbalance caused by fatigue and stress can be triggers. It can also be traced to an individual's personality traits, how stress you are and how you are equipped to meet the provocative behavior of a counterparty. 
The police develop common standards on what is acceptable unauthorized and in some cases even praiseworthy. Police Organisation's responsibility to be active in order to capture a negative behavior by the police, and to continuously pursue work as a preventive measure benefits both the police organization as well as the community and the police response to the public.},
  author       = {Hall, Camilla},
  keyword      = {yrkeskultur,Polis,våldsanvändning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Polisen - Fredsbevarare eller brottsbekämpare},
  year         = {2013},
}