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Väsentliga ändringar i pågående offentliga kontrakt - Om avtalsrättens möjlighet till flexibilitet

Krantz, Axel LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Avtalsfrihet och avtalsbundenhet samt den därtill hörande principen om pacta sunt servanda utgör grunden för den svenska avtalsrätten. Avtalsfriheten innebär att var och en har rätt att besluta med vem de ska sluta avtal samt vad avtalet ska reglera. Avtalsbundenheten binder parterna rättsligt att utföra de förpliktelser avtalet ålägger dem. Upphandlingsrätten utgör ett undantag från den svenska avtalsfriheten genom att myndigheter inte fritt kan välja med vem de ska ingå avtal. LOU reglerar det upphandlingsförfarande genom vilket den leverantör som myndigheten ska teckna avtal med väljs ut. Upphandlingsrätten upphör dock inte gälla i samband med att kontraktet har tecknats. Regelverket är tillämpligt under hela kontraktets löptid och... (More)
Avtalsfrihet och avtalsbundenhet samt den därtill hörande principen om pacta sunt servanda utgör grunden för den svenska avtalsrätten. Avtalsfriheten innebär att var och en har rätt att besluta med vem de ska sluta avtal samt vad avtalet ska reglera. Avtalsbundenheten binder parterna rättsligt att utföra de förpliktelser avtalet ålägger dem. Upphandlingsrätten utgör ett undantag från den svenska avtalsfriheten genom att myndigheter inte fritt kan välja med vem de ska ingå avtal. LOU reglerar det upphandlingsförfarande genom vilket den leverantör som myndigheten ska teckna avtal med väljs ut. Upphandlingsrätten upphör dock inte gälla i samband med att kontraktet har tecknats. Regelverket är tillämpligt under hela kontraktets löptid och ändringar som införs i ett upphandlingskontrakt måste överensstämma med upphandlingsrätten. Den upphandlingsrättsliga bedömningen görs i enlighet med det test som EU-domstolen presenterade i rättsfallet Pressetext. Om en ändring är att anse som en betydande ändring, av de väsentliga kontraktsvillkoren, anses upphandlingsrättsligt ett nytt kontrakt ha tillkommit. Det tillkomna kontraktet måste då upphandlas och tilldelas genom ett nytt upphandlingsförfarande.

Omständigheter rörande förändringar i ett kontrakt hänförs traditionellt till avtalsrätten. Förhållandet mellan den nationella avtalsrätten och upphandlingsrätten är inte klarlagt och de två rättsområdena överlappar delvis varandra. Föreliggande arbete utreder om bedömningen, huruvida ändringen är att anse som väsentlig, och därmed om ett nytt kontrakt har tillkommit, påverkas om ändringen uppkommit genom ett användande av svensk avtalsrätt eller genom kontraktsrätt. Arbetet behandlar även EU-kommissionens förslag till ett nytt direktiv, KOM (2011) 896 slutlig, där väsentliga ändringar i ett kontrakt under dess löptid för första gången behandlas i ett direktiv.

En ändring som tillkommit genom användandet av en klausul torde accepteras och kan ses som en tillämpning av avtalet och som ett tecken på kontinuitet. Detta förutsätter dock att klausulen funnits med i både kontraktet och i förfrågningsunderlaget. Klausulen måste även uppfylla de krav som ställs i Pressetexttestet. Genom den utveckling som skett inom offentlig upphandling verkar ett särskilt avtalsrättsligt regelverk för offentliga kontrakt och ändringar i dessa ha framträtt, som skulle kunna ses som lex specialis mot avtalsrättens lex generalis. Det rådande rättsläget ger dock inte svar på vilken betydelse, om någon, som ska tillmäts det faktum, att en ändring tillkommit genom en domstols användande av svensk avtalsrätt. Om Kommissionens direktivförslag röstas igenom skulle det innebära en partiell kodifiering av rådande praxis och öppna upp för ökad flexibilitet rörande hanteringen av ändringar i offentliga kontrakt i framtiden. Direktivförslaget synes även stärka resonemanget om upphandlingsrätten som ett särskilt avtalsrättsligt regelverk. (Less)
Abstract
The Swedish contract law is built on the foundation of freedom of contract, contractuality and the associated principle of pacta sunt servanda.
Freedom of contract entails the right for individuals to choose with whom they should contract with and on which terms. The contractuality legally binds the contractors to perform the obligations imposed by the contract. The Swedish law on public procurement, LOU, and the EU law on public procurement represent an exception to the Swedish freedom of contract since authorities are not free to enter into agreement with a contractor of their choice. LOU constitutes a law of procedure, which through a procurement procedure chooses with whom the authority shall contract. The legal effects of public... (More)
The Swedish contract law is built on the foundation of freedom of contract, contractuality and the associated principle of pacta sunt servanda.
Freedom of contract entails the right for individuals to choose with whom they should contract with and on which terms. The contractuality legally binds the contractors to perform the obligations imposed by the contract. The Swedish law on public procurement, LOU, and the EU law on public procurement represent an exception to the Swedish freedom of contract since authorities are not free to enter into agreement with a contractor of their choice. LOU constitutes a law of procedure, which through a procurement procedure chooses with whom the authority shall contract. The legal effects of public procurement do not end when the contract is signed. The rules are applicable throughout the term of the contract and amendments introduced in a public contract must comply with the public procurement rules. The legal assessment in public procurement is made after a test introduced in the Pressetext case by the CJEU. If an amendment is considered a material amendment of the essential terms of the contract, then it constitutes a new award of a contract, prior to a tender procedure. The new contract then requires to be retendered through a new tendering procedure.

This thesis investigates the assessment, whether the amendment is considered material, and thus if a new contract has been awarded, if the amendment is caused by the use of Swedish contract law or by the use of clauses in the contract. The thesis also covers the Commission's proposal for a new Directive, COM (2011) 896 final, where material amendments during the term of the contract are treated for the first time in a Directive.

An amendment implemented through the use of a clause ought to be accepted and can be seen as an application of the contract and a sign of continuity of the procurement procedure. However, this assumes that the clause was provided by the contract and the procurement specifications. The clause must also meet the requirements provided by the test in Pressetext. Through the developments of public procurement, a special legal framework for public contracts and amendments thereto, seems to have emerged. This framework could be viewed as lex specialis against the contract law as lex generalis. However, the legal situation does not provide any answer as to what significance, if any, should be given to the fact that an amendment is provided through the use of Swedish contract law. If the Commission's proposed Directive is voted through , it would mean both a partial codification of existing case law and an opening up for increased flexibility regarding the renegotiation of amendments in public contracts in the future. The proposed Directive seems to strengthen the idea of public procurement as a special contractual framework. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Krantz, Axel LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Material amendments in ongoing public contracts - The possibilities of contract law for flexibility
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Upphandlingsrätt Offentlig upphandling Avtalsrätt EU-rätt Väsentliga ändringar
language
Swedish
id
4230726
date added to LUP
2014-01-27 08:43:23
date last changed
2014-01-27 08:43:23
@misc{4230726,
  abstract     = {The Swedish contract law is built on the foundation of freedom of contract, contractuality and the associated principle of pacta sunt servanda.
Freedom of contract entails the right for individuals to choose with whom they should contract with and on which terms. The contractuality legally binds the contractors to perform the obligations imposed by the contract. The Swedish law on public procurement, LOU, and the EU law on public procurement represent an exception to the Swedish freedom of contract since authorities are not free to enter into agreement with a contractor of their choice. LOU constitutes a law of procedure, which through a procurement procedure chooses with whom the authority shall contract. The legal effects of public procurement do not end when the contract is signed. The rules are applicable throughout the term of the contract and amendments introduced in a public contract must comply with the public procurement rules. The legal assessment in public procurement is made after a test introduced in the Pressetext case by the CJEU. If an amendment is considered a material amendment of the essential terms of the contract, then it constitutes a new award of a contract, prior to a tender procedure. The new contract then requires to be retendered through a new tendering procedure.

This thesis investigates the assessment, whether the amendment is considered material, and thus if a new contract has been awarded, if the amendment is caused by the use of Swedish contract law or by the use of clauses in the contract. The thesis also covers the Commission's proposal for a new Directive, COM (2011) 896 final, where material amendments during the term of the contract are treated for the first time in a Directive.

An amendment implemented through the use of a clause ought to be accepted and can be seen as an application of the contract and a sign of continuity of the procurement procedure. However, this assumes that the clause was provided by the contract and the procurement specifications. The clause must also meet the requirements provided by the test in Pressetext. Through the developments of public procurement, a special legal framework for public contracts and amendments thereto, seems to have emerged. This framework could be viewed as lex specialis against the contract law as lex generalis. However, the legal situation does not provide any answer as to what significance, if any, should be given to the fact that an amendment is provided through the use of Swedish contract law. If the Commission's proposed Directive is voted through , it would mean both a partial codification of existing case law and an opening up for increased flexibility regarding the renegotiation of amendments in public contracts in the future. The proposed Directive seems to strengthen the idea of public procurement as a special contractual framework.},
  author       = {Krantz, Axel},
  keyword      = {Upphandlingsrätt Offentlig upphandling Avtalsrätt EU-rätt Väsentliga ändringar},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Väsentliga ändringar i pågående offentliga kontrakt - Om avtalsrättens möjlighet till flexibilitet},
  year         = {2013},
}