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Utvisning på grund av brott - En studie av institutets teori och praktik

Svensson, Stina LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Endast den som är svensk medborgare har en absolut rätt att vistas i landet. När en utlänning begår ett brott kan detta under vissa förutsättningar leda till att utlänningen utvisas. När domstolen avgör om en utlänning ska utvisas på grund av brott görs en avvägning mellan brottets allvarlighet eller risken för att utlänningen återfaller i brott och utlänningens anknytning till Sverige.

Uppsatsen angriper lagstiftningen om utvisning på grund av brott ur tre olika vinklar. Den första angreppssättet är att sätta in utvisningsinstitutet i sitt utlänningsrättsliga, kriminalpolitiska och straffrättsideologiska sammanhang för att således studera utvisningsinstitutets plats i rättssystemet. Det andra angreppssättet är att med en rättsdogmatisk... (More)
Endast den som är svensk medborgare har en absolut rätt att vistas i landet. När en utlänning begår ett brott kan detta under vissa förutsättningar leda till att utlänningen utvisas. När domstolen avgör om en utlänning ska utvisas på grund av brott görs en avvägning mellan brottets allvarlighet eller risken för att utlänningen återfaller i brott och utlänningens anknytning till Sverige.

Uppsatsen angriper lagstiftningen om utvisning på grund av brott ur tre olika vinklar. Den första angreppssättet är att sätta in utvisningsinstitutet i sitt utlänningsrättsliga, kriminalpolitiska och straffrättsideologiska sammanhang för att således studera utvisningsinstitutets plats i rättssystemet. Det andra angreppssättet är att med en rättsdogmatisk metod utreda gällande rätt på området för att mot bakgrund av rättssäkerheten se om lagstiftningen är godtagbar i fråga om förutsebarhet för den enskilda individen. Det tredje angreppssättet är en studie av hovrättsdomar, där uppsatsen redogör för hur institutet tillämpas i praktiken.

Slutsatsen är att utvisningsinstitutet inte har samma utgångspunkt som påföljdssystemet i stort och att detta förmodligen beror på utvisningsinstitutets nära koppling till utlänningskontrollen. Medan påföljdsbestämningen i stort på dömande planet utgår från att påföljden ska stå i proportion till brottet, är utvisningsinstitutets utgångspunkt att utvisningen ska stå i proportion till brottet och de effekter som utvisningen kan tänkas ha för utlänningen.

Slutsatsen av rättsutredningen är att lagstiftningen trots sin öppna karaktär, genom Högsta domstolens tolkning har fått en något tydligare innebörd, men att rättsläget ändå kan vara oförutsägbart för den enskilda individen särskilt i fråga om vilken anknytning som kan väga över skälen för utvisning. Men då denna avvägning endast är till fördel för den enskilda bör kraven på förutsebarhet inte ställas lika högt.

Studien av hovrättsfall visar att avvägningen mellan skäl för utvisning och utlänningens anknytning till Sverige i de allra flesta fall inte vållar domstolen särskilt stora problem då den utlänning som blir föremål för utvisning sällan har någon anknytning till Sverige. I ett flertal fall förekommer dock att domstolen konstaterar att en utlänning inte har någon anknytning till Sverige trots att denne vistats här under en tid. I dessa fall hade det varit önskvärt, mot bakgrund av kraven på rättssäkerhet, om domstolen utförligare motiverade bristen på anknytning. I de fall där domstolen nämner anknytning till det svenska samhället framstår värderingen av vilken typ av anknytning som tillmäts betydelse som relativt enhetlig.

Uppsatsen utmynnar i en rekommendation att ändra lagstiftningen på området för att styrka institutets enhetlighet med påföljdssystemet i stort samt öka rättssäkerheten på området. Rekommendationen är att tydligare koppla de skäl som kan leda till utvisning till brottets straffvärde. En sådan lagstiftning skulle öka förutsebarheten för den enskilde, samtidigt som den hela människan i all sin komplexitet fortfarande skulle kunna beaktas då skäl för utvisning föreligger. (Less)
Abstract
Summary
Only Swedish citizens enjoy the absolute right to reside in Sweden. A foreigner who commits a crime can, under certain circumstances, be deported. When the court decides whether or not a foreigner is going to be deported because of crime it makes an adjustment between the severity of the crime or the risk of continued criminal activity and the foreigners attachment to Sweden.

The thesis examines the regulation of deportation because of crime from three different angles. The first angle examines the institute of deportation because of crime in the context of migration law, criminal policy and Penal Law ideologies. The second angle is a judicial enquiry of the applicable law in the light of rule of law with its high demands on... (More)
Summary
Only Swedish citizens enjoy the absolute right to reside in Sweden. A foreigner who commits a crime can, under certain circumstances, be deported. When the court decides whether or not a foreigner is going to be deported because of crime it makes an adjustment between the severity of the crime or the risk of continued criminal activity and the foreigners attachment to Sweden.

The thesis examines the regulation of deportation because of crime from three different angles. The first angle examines the institute of deportation because of crime in the context of migration law, criminal policy and Penal Law ideologies. The second angle is a judicial enquiry of the applicable law in the light of rule of law with its high demands on the applicable law being predictable for the individual. The third angle examines how the Court of Appeal administers the law in its everyday practice.

The thesis concludes that the institute of deportation because of crime at some length has other motives than the penal system as a whole. Most likely this incoherence depends on the institutes close connection to the migration law and control of aliens. While the main motive for the penal system is proportionality between crime and sentence, the main motive for the adjustment between the severity of the crime or the risk of continues criminality and the foreigners attachment to Sweden seems to be that the crime is supposed to be proportional to the crime and the expected effects of the deportation on the foreigner’s life.

The judicial enquiry of the applicable law conclude that even though the law, through precedents from the Supreme Court to some extent has gained a more accurate meaning it still contains unpredictable elements, such as the adjustment between the foreigners attachment to Sweden and the reasons for deportation. However, since this adjustment only can lead to benefits for the individual, one can argue that the demands on predictability are not to be set as high.

The study of Court of Appeal cases shows that the adjustment between the reasons for deportation and the foreigner’s attachment to Sweden seldom causes any trouble since the foreigner often lack attachment to Sweden entirely. However cases occur where the court establishes that the foreigner lack attachment to Sweden even tough he or she has been residing here for quite some time. In these cases it would be desirable if the court to a greater extent, in the light of the rule of law, motivated the grounds for the conclusion that the foreigner lack attachment. In cases where the Court discusses the foreigners’ attachment to Sweden the valuation of what kind of attachment that matters appears relatively coherent.

The thesis ends in a recommendation to change the law in order to gain a greater coherence with the penal system as a whole and a greater compliance with the rule of law. The recommendation consists in making a clearer connection between the reasons for deportation and the penal value of the crime. Such a change would increase the predictability for the individual and still make it possible for the court to take the whole person and all circumstances of relevance into account in cases where reasons for deportation occurs. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Svensson, Stina LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Deportation because of crime - The regulation in theory and practice
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
language
Swedish
id
4230746
date added to LUP
2014-01-30 12:01:59
date last changed
2014-01-30 12:01:59
@misc{4230746,
  abstract     = {Summary
Only Swedish citizens enjoy the absolute right to reside in Sweden. A foreigner who commits a crime can, under certain circumstances, be deported. When the court decides whether or not a foreigner is going to be deported because of crime it makes an adjustment between the severity of the crime or the risk of continued criminal activity and the foreigners attachment to Sweden. 

The thesis examines the regulation of deportation because of crime from three different angles. The first angle examines the institute of deportation because of crime in the context of migration law, criminal policy and Penal Law ideologies. The second angle is a judicial enquiry of the applicable law in the light of rule of law with its high demands on the applicable law being predictable for the individual. The third angle examines how the Court of Appeal administers the law in its everyday practice.

The thesis concludes that the institute of deportation because of crime at some length has other motives than the penal system as a whole. Most likely this incoherence depends on the institutes close connection to the migration law and control of aliens. While the main motive for the penal system is proportionality between crime and sentence, the main motive for the adjustment between the severity of the crime or the risk of continues criminality and the foreigners attachment to Sweden seems to be that the crime is supposed to be proportional to the crime and the expected effects of the deportation on the foreigner’s life. 
 
The judicial enquiry of the applicable law conclude that even though the law, through precedents from the Supreme Court to some extent has gained a more accurate meaning it still contains unpredictable elements, such as the adjustment between the foreigners attachment to Sweden and the reasons for deportation. However, since this adjustment only can lead to benefits for the individual, one can argue that the demands on predictability are not to be set as high. 

The study of Court of Appeal cases shows that the adjustment between the reasons for deportation and the foreigner’s attachment to Sweden seldom causes any trouble since the foreigner often lack attachment to Sweden entirely. However cases occur where the court establishes that the foreigner lack attachment to Sweden even tough he or she has been residing here for quite some time. In these cases it would be desirable if the court to a greater extent, in the light of the rule of law, motivated the grounds for the conclusion that the foreigner lack attachment. In cases where the Court discusses the foreigners’ attachment to Sweden the valuation of what kind of attachment that matters appears relatively coherent. 

The thesis ends in a recommendation to change the law in order to gain a greater coherence with the penal system as a whole and a greater compliance with the rule of law. The recommendation consists in making a clearer connection between the reasons for deportation and the penal value of the crime. Such a change would increase the predictability for the individual and still make it possible for the court to take the whole person and all circumstances of relevance into account in cases where reasons for deportation occurs.},
  author       = {Svensson, Stina},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Utvisning på grund av brott - En studie av institutets teori och praktik},
  year         = {2013},
}