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Frihet, jämlikhet, familjerätt - En studie av regnbågsfamiljens utveckling och koherensen mellan skilda lagstiftningar

Johansson, Madeleine LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Dagens familjer ser inte ut på samma sätt som de gjorde ”förr i tiden”, då kärnfamiljen med mamma, pappa och biologiska barn var den enda socialt accepterade familjekonstellationen. Sedan dess har stora förändringar skett hos den svenska befolkningen, som kämpat för bland annat kvinnlig frigörelse och mot patriarkala strukturer och normer. I dag erkänner det svenska rättssystemet ett flertal andra typer av familjer och har i och med detta tvingats anpassa lagstiftningen efter denna utveckling. Detta innebär exempelvis att även samkönade par numera har möjlighet att gifta sig, ansöka om att adoptera barn, och att lesbiska par också kan få hjälp med assisterad befruktning inom den svenska sjukvården. Att dessa reformer genomförts har... (More)
Dagens familjer ser inte ut på samma sätt som de gjorde ”förr i tiden”, då kärnfamiljen med mamma, pappa och biologiska barn var den enda socialt accepterade familjekonstellationen. Sedan dess har stora förändringar skett hos den svenska befolkningen, som kämpat för bland annat kvinnlig frigörelse och mot patriarkala strukturer och normer. I dag erkänner det svenska rättssystemet ett flertal andra typer av familjer och har i och med detta tvingats anpassa lagstiftningen efter denna utveckling. Detta innebär exempelvis att även samkönade par numera har möjlighet att gifta sig, ansöka om att adoptera barn, och att lesbiska par också kan få hjälp med assisterad befruktning inom den svenska sjukvården. Att dessa reformer genomförts har inneburit stora förändringar i den svenska lagstiftningen, särskilt inom det familjerättsliga området. Men i och med att familjerätten utvecklas måste också den offentligrättsliga regleringen anpassas och förändras, och detsamma gäller för socialrätten. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att granska hur dessa förändringar har skett. Jag har också undersökt vilka problem lagstiftaren har tvingats bemöta och eventuella kompromisser som har tvingats fram under lagstiftningsprocessen.

Uppsatsen inleds med en introduktion till det svenska offentligrättsliga skyddet mot diskriminering och missgynnande på grund av sexuell läggning, och hur detta har utvecklats sedan slutet på 1970-talet, då samkönad samlevnad för första gången togs upp till diskussion i lagstiftningshänseende. Utöver den renodlade svenska offentliga rätten går jag också igenom den av Sverige ratificerade konventionen om mänskliga rättigheter, EKMR, och dess bestämmelser kring familjeliv och samlevnad. Jag söker efter likheter och skillnader mellan nationell och mellanstatlig reglering, där skillnaderna har varit övervägande, särskilt i förhållande till familjerättslig lagstiftning. Därefter följer en utförlig beskrivning av hur den svenska familjerätten gradvis har utvecklats med målsättningen att jämställa olika samlevnads- och familjeformer oavsett sexuell läggning. Lagstiftarens motiv är i fokus och jag analyserar löpande hur juridiken har anpassats till samhällsförändringar och moderna strukturer. Dessutom avhandlas problematiken i att lagstiftaren valt att skjuta vissa familjerättsliga frågor framför sig istället för att ta tag i dem, vilket leder till oklara rättsförhållanden. Detta gäller särskilt för surrogatmoderskap, ett omdebatterat ämne som lätt väcker debatt. Eftersom uppsatsen har som syfte att granska rättsutvecklingen i förhållande till de rättsliga system som styr över familjen, har socialrätten givits ett eget kapitel i slutet av uppsatsen. Här går jag igenom hur de sociala myndigheterna har anpassat och implementerat den moderna civilrätten i sitt arbete och vilka eventuella brister som kan påvisas i samarbetet mellan civil- och socialrätt. Det socialrättsliga arbetet är i fokus och med hjälp av rättsfall, intervjuer och undersökningar får jag svar på mina frågeställningar.

I en avslutande djupgående analys försöker jag bena ut vilka de största krockpunkterna är mellan lagstiftningarna, och vad som behöver göras för att dels jämställa regnbågsfamiljen med den traditionella kärnfamiljen, men också hur rättssystemen ska fogas samman för att tillämpningen av främst den familjerättsliga lagstiftningen ska fungera optimalt. Uppsatsen är inte särskilt traditionellt beskrivande, den ifrågasätter och kräver förändring, eftertanke och modernisering. Jag önskar att lagstiftaren tänkte ”hållbarhet, funktion, samverkan” i sitt arbete och att heteronormen kunde synliggöras mer. Särskilt inom de sociala myndigheterna, som i princip utgår ifrån att alla människor de möter i sin verksamhet är heterosexuella. Den tiden är förbi, familjen är ett dynamiskt element som kan ändras och formas fritt, och bör ha möjlighet till detta även juridiskt. (Less)
Abstract
We live in a time where one can form a family in numerous ways. A time where the nuclear family is no longer the only accepted option in our society. The movement towards women’s rights and equality, as well as the fight against patriarchal and normative structures has led to the acknowledgement of other types of families. New structures however, require new legislation. Today same-sexed marriage is legalized in Sweden, gay and lesbian couples can be tried out as adoptive parents and lesbian couples can receive assisted conception. The Swedish civil law regarding family matters has certainly developed in a very short time. But legal reformation in civil matters requires change in both public and social law. The purpose of this study is to... (More)
We live in a time where one can form a family in numerous ways. A time where the nuclear family is no longer the only accepted option in our society. The movement towards women’s rights and equality, as well as the fight against patriarchal and normative structures has led to the acknowledgement of other types of families. New structures however, require new legislation. Today same-sexed marriage is legalized in Sweden, gay and lesbian couples can be tried out as adoptive parents and lesbian couples can receive assisted conception. The Swedish civil law regarding family matters has certainly developed in a very short time. But legal reformation in civil matters requires change in both public and social law. The purpose of this study is to canvass how these changes have been made possible. I have also tried to point out some of the problems the legislator had to face during this work and the compromises that had to be made. I have phrased four comprehensive problems In order to answer these questions, and on the basis of these found results that were both satisfying and sometimes disappointing.

As a brief introduction and historic retrospect, the study presents Swedish national public and criminal law and its protection against discrimination and disadvantage based on sexual orientation. This legislation has developed since the 1970:s, when same-sexed coexistence first was brought up to discussion in Swedish legal matters. A separate part of this chapter focuses on the European convention of human rights and its regulation of coexistence and family life. I have been searching for both similarities and differences, where differences have been found to be clearly over-represented, especially in relation to Swedish family law. The following chapter, which also is the main part of the study, focuses on family law and the development towards equality between different types of coexistence, where sexual orientation is not a legal reason for mistreatment and discrimination. The chapter focuses on the legislator’s motives and the purpose of the suggested legislation, and I analyze these throughout the whole chapter. Has the legislator considered structural changes in society and thought outside the box in order to once and for all be a little less normative? This chapter also questions problems regarding children born with help from a surrogate mother, since the Swedish legislator has chosen not to found legislation in this matter, and the ones suffering from this are the innocent and unknowing children. Since I am writing a study about how different legal systems collaborate, I have also examined the Swedish social legislation. Does the social authorities recognize the rainbow family, and are they prepared to meet their needs? Studies of legal cases, interviews and reports have been helpful and provided me with material to answer my questions.

My final and profound analysis is made with the purpose to sort out partly the major problems that automatically come with the combining of different legal systems, and partly how these systems could work better together. I have also tried to point out some changes that could be made in order to give the rainbow family the same status as the nuclear one, both legally and socially. The result is maybe not the traditional essay, but more a questioning of our legal society. I wish that the legislator could work for a durable, well functioning, collaborative legislation and the visualization of the normative structures in our society. If they could do that, then I think change would be made possible and families could be as dynamic as they want. Love and law are two different things, but they still have to work together. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Johansson, Madeleine LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Liberty, equality and family law - The development of the rainbow family and the coherence of separate legislation
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt
language
Swedish
id
4230820
date added to LUP
2014-01-29 14:57:17
date last changed
2014-01-29 14:57:17
@misc{4230820,
  abstract     = {We live in a time where one can form a family in numerous ways. A time where the nuclear family is no longer the only accepted option in our society. The movement towards women’s rights and equality, as well as the fight against patriarchal and normative structures has led to the acknowledgement of other types of families. New structures however, require new legislation. Today same-sexed marriage is legalized in Sweden, gay and lesbian couples can be tried out as adoptive parents and lesbian couples can receive assisted conception. The Swedish civil law regarding family matters has certainly developed in a very short time. But legal reformation in civil matters requires change in both public and social law. The purpose of this study is to canvass how these changes have been made possible. I have also tried to point out some of the problems the legislator had to face during this work and the compromises that had to be made. I have phrased four comprehensive problems In order to answer these questions, and on the basis of these found results that were both satisfying and sometimes disappointing. 

As a brief introduction and historic retrospect, the study presents Swedish national public and criminal law and its protection against discrimination and disadvantage based on sexual orientation. This legislation has developed since the 1970:s, when same-sexed coexistence first was brought up to discussion in Swedish legal matters. A separate part of this chapter focuses on the European convention of human rights and its regulation of coexistence and family life. I have been searching for both similarities and differences, where differences have been found to be clearly over-represented, especially in relation to Swedish family law. The following chapter, which also is the main part of the study, focuses on family law and the development towards equality between different types of coexistence, where sexual orientation is not a legal reason for mistreatment and discrimination. The chapter focuses on the legislator’s motives and the purpose of the suggested legislation, and I analyze these throughout the whole chapter. Has the legislator considered structural changes in society and thought outside the box in order to once and for all be a little less normative? This chapter also questions problems regarding children born with help from a surrogate mother, since the Swedish legislator has chosen not to found legislation in this matter, and the ones suffering from this are the innocent and unknowing children. Since I am writing a study about how different legal systems collaborate, I have also examined the Swedish social legislation. Does the social authorities recognize the rainbow family, and are they prepared to meet their needs? Studies of legal cases, interviews and reports have been helpful and provided me with material to answer my questions. 

My final and profound analysis is made with the purpose to sort out partly the major problems that automatically come with the combining of different legal systems, and partly how these systems could work better together. I have also tried to point out some changes that could be made in order to give the rainbow family the same status as the nuclear one, both legally and socially. The result is maybe not the traditional essay, but more a questioning of our legal society. I wish that the legislator could work for a durable, well functioning, collaborative legislation and the visualization of the normative structures in our society. If they could do that, then I think change would be made possible and families could be as dynamic as they want. Love and law are two different things, but they still have to work together.},
  author       = {Johansson, Madeleine},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Frihet, jämlikhet, familjerätt - En studie av regnbågsfamiljens utveckling och koherensen mellan skilda lagstiftningar},
  year         = {2013},
}