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Tvånget och autonomin - en diskursanalytisk undersökning av sterilisering som villkor i svensk lagstiftning

Magnusson, Kajsa LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sterilisering, de tekniker som avsiktligt tar bort möjligheten för någon att få biologiska barn, har inte bara använts som en frivillig åtgärd för barnbegränsning utan också som ett samhälleligt tvångsmedel i 1900-talets Sverige. Enligt de steriliseringslagar som gällde mellan 1935 och 1975 kunde sterilisering utgöra ett villkor för utskrivning från en anstalt, ekonomisk hjälp och stöd eller tillstånd till abort. Offentliga utredningar, akademiska avhandlingar och andra publikationer har undersökt denna tidsperiod. I denna uppsats avser jag att komplettera dessa undersökningar genom att sammanlänka steriliseringsvillkoret i 1934 och 1941 års steriliseringslagar med steriliseringsvillkoret som fram till 2013 fanns i lag (1972:119) om... (More)
Sterilisering, de tekniker som avsiktligt tar bort möjligheten för någon att få biologiska barn, har inte bara använts som en frivillig åtgärd för barnbegränsning utan också som ett samhälleligt tvångsmedel i 1900-talets Sverige. Enligt de steriliseringslagar som gällde mellan 1935 och 1975 kunde sterilisering utgöra ett villkor för utskrivning från en anstalt, ekonomisk hjälp och stöd eller tillstånd till abort. Offentliga utredningar, akademiska avhandlingar och andra publikationer har undersökt denna tidsperiod. I denna uppsats avser jag att komplettera dessa undersökningar genom att sammanlänka steriliseringsvillkoret i 1934 och 1941 års steriliseringslagar med steriliseringsvillkoret som fram till 2013 fanns i lag (1972:119) om fastställande av könstillhörighet i vissa fall och som uppställde ett krav på sterilisering för att en person skulle kunna korrigera sin juridiska könstillhörighet.

Uppsatsen undersöker de statliga offentliga utredningar som föregick den lagstiftning som rört sterilisering. Genom att använda mig av en kritisk diskursanalys när jag undersöker sterilisering som villkor, både i förhållande till abort och i förhållande till korrigering av juridiskt kön, identifierar jag de underliggande orsakerna för lagstiftningen. En rättsdogmatisk metod har dessutom använts för att fastställa gällande rätt. Genom att identifiera de övergripande diskurserna i lagstiftningen undersöker jag i uppsatsen inte bara hur men också varför viss lagstiftning skapats. Uppsatsen använder sig främst av två begrepp som bildar ett begreppspar, nämligen auktoritet och autonomi. Genom dessa två begrepp, som placeras i en dikotomi, samt genom teorier om lagen som en auktoritet och individen som en statligt kontrollerad och reglerad nyttighet, kan jag identifiera följande diskurser: den respektabla människan genom teorin om respektabilitet; folkmaterialet i den mening att samhällsinvånarna utgör en formbar och föränderlig massa; positioneringen av den transsexuelle som såväl objekt som subaltern genom svensk historieskrivning; samt reproduktionen av den heterosexuella matrisen enligt Judith Butlers teori.

Avståndstagandet från den sterilisering som utövades under de lagar som gällde fram till 1975 utesluter och osynliggör den sterilisering som skedde som villkor fram till 2013. Detta osynliggörande har möjligtgjorts dels genom positioneringen av den transsexuella kroppen som subaltern och dels genom uppfattningen om vad som utgör en respektabel kropp. Genom den heterosexuella matrisen gjordes sterilisering till en rimlig åtgärd för att skapa respektabla kroppar, trots kunskapen om tvångssterilisering i svensk historia och trots det allmännas avståndstagande från detta. (Less)
Abstract
Sterilisation, the techniques that intentionally leave a person unable to conceive, has been used not only as a voluntary tactic for an individual wishing to control his or her reproductive abilities, but also as a societal coercive measure throughout 20th century Sweden. According to legislation between the years of 1935 and 1975, sterilisation could constitute a condition for an individual in order to be discharged from an institution, in order to receive economic aid, or in order to apply for the termination of a pregnancy through abortion. Public inquiries as well as academic dissertations and investigative publications have thoroughly examined this time period. Through this essay, I intend to complement those investigations with an... (More)
Sterilisation, the techniques that intentionally leave a person unable to conceive, has been used not only as a voluntary tactic for an individual wishing to control his or her reproductive abilities, but also as a societal coercive measure throughout 20th century Sweden. According to legislation between the years of 1935 and 1975, sterilisation could constitute a condition for an individual in order to be discharged from an institution, in order to receive economic aid, or in order to apply for the termination of a pregnancy through abortion. Public inquiries as well as academic dissertations and investigative publications have thoroughly examined this time period. Through this essay, I intend to complement those investigations with an analysis where I link sterilisation as a condition in order to receive an abortion under certain circumstances to sterilisation as a condition in order to undergo legal gender reassignment.

This essay investigates the Swedish Government Official Reports as accounts for the legislative history that led up to legislation concerning sterilisation. Through examining the concept of sterilisation as a condition, both in relation to the termination of a pregnancy and in relation to legal gender reassignment, the essay uses both the legal method and the method of critical discourse analysis to identify the underlying background and settings for the legislation. By identifying the main discourses of the Official Reports, the essay investigates not only how but also why certain legislation came to place. The essay uses mainly two theoretical concepts in the analysis, these being authority and autonomy. Through these concepts, placed as dichotomies, as well as the theory of the legislation as the authority and the individual as a utility used for the authority, the essay identifies the following discourses: the respectable human through the theory of respectability; the public material in the sense of the public being ductile for the authority; the positioning of the transsexual as an object as well as the subaltern throughout the Swedish historiography; and finally the production of the heterosexual matrix through the theory of Judith Butler within the administration of the law.

The repudiation of the historical occasions of sterilisation up until the amended legislation of 1975 extradites the actual continuation of sterilisation as a dictated term in order to undergo legal gender reassignment until 2013. This was made possible by the positioning of the transsexual as the subaltern as well as the narrowly conceived notion of the respectable body. Through the heterosexual matrix, sterilisation has been made a reasonable practice in order to create the respectable body despite the historical knowledge and repudiation of sterilisation as a term. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Magnusson, Kajsa LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Coercion and autonomy - a discourse analysis of sterilisation as a coercive term within Swedish legislation
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
förvaltningsrätt, administrative law, diskursanalys, sterilisering som villkor, abort, könskorrigering, discourse analysis, law and political science
language
Swedish
id
4239127
date added to LUP
2014-01-24 10:59:25
date last changed
2014-01-24 10:59:25
@misc{4239127,
  abstract     = {Sterilisation, the techniques that intentionally leave a person unable to conceive, has been used not only as a voluntary tactic for an individual wishing to control his or her reproductive abilities, but also as a societal coercive measure throughout 20th century Sweden. According to legislation between the years of 1935 and 1975, sterilisation could constitute a condition for an individual in order to be discharged from an institution, in order to receive economic aid, or in order to apply for the termination of a pregnancy through abortion. Public inquiries as well as academic dissertations and investigative publications have thoroughly examined this time period. Through this essay, I intend to complement those investigations with an analysis where I link sterilisation as a condition in order to receive an abortion under certain circumstances to sterilisation as a condition in order to undergo legal gender reassignment. 

This essay investigates the Swedish Government Official Reports as accounts for the legislative history that led up to legislation concerning sterilisation. Through examining the concept of sterilisation as a condition, both in relation to the termination of a pregnancy and in relation to legal gender reassignment, the essay uses both the legal method and the method of critical discourse analysis to identify the underlying background and settings for the legislation. By identifying the main discourses of the Official Reports, the essay investigates not only how but also why certain legislation came to place. The essay uses mainly two theoretical concepts in the analysis, these being authority and autonomy. Through these concepts, placed as dichotomies, as well as the theory of the legislation as the authority and the individual as a utility used for the authority, the essay identifies the following discourses: the respectable human through the theory of respectability; the public material in the sense of the public being ductile for the authority; the positioning of the transsexual as an object as well as the subaltern throughout the Swedish historiography; and finally the production of the heterosexual matrix through the theory of Judith Butler within the administration of the law. 

The repudiation of the historical occasions of sterilisation up until the amended legislation of 1975 extradites the actual continuation of sterilisation as a dictated term in order to undergo legal gender reassignment until 2013. This was made possible by the positioning of the transsexual as the subaltern as well as the narrowly conceived notion of the respectable body. Through the heterosexual matrix, sterilisation has been made a reasonable practice in order to create the respectable body despite the historical knowledge and repudiation of sterilisation as a term.},
  author       = {Magnusson, Kajsa},
  keyword      = {förvaltningsrätt,administrative law,diskursanalys,sterilisering som villkor,abort,könskorrigering,discourse analysis,law and political science},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Tvånget och autonomin - en diskursanalytisk undersökning av sterilisering som villkor i svensk lagstiftning},
  year         = {2013},
}