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När vikten väger in- en analys av det arbetsrättsliga skyddet för överviktiga i svensk rätt ur ett EU-rättsligt perspektiv

Alberius, Sarah LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Övervikt synes vara ett förödande socialt stigma, inte minst på arbetsmarknadens område. Med beaktande av detta är syftet med förevarande uppsats att utreda och analysera överviktiga personers arbetsrättsliga skydd vid anställningens ingående, under pågående anställning samt vid anställningens avslutande. Uppsatsen fokuserar på rättsområdena diskrimineringsskydd, anställningsskydd, arbetsmiljöskydd samt integritetsskydd.

EU-rättens utveckling, genom att FN konventionen numer utgör en del av unionsrätten inom ramen för diskrimineringsskyddet, vilket bl.a. fastslogs genom de förenade målen HK Danmark mot Dansk almennyttig Boligselskab/Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, har öppnat för att överviktiga personer med varaktig arbetsnedsättning ska... (More)
Övervikt synes vara ett förödande socialt stigma, inte minst på arbetsmarknadens område. Med beaktande av detta är syftet med förevarande uppsats att utreda och analysera överviktiga personers arbetsrättsliga skydd vid anställningens ingående, under pågående anställning samt vid anställningens avslutande. Uppsatsen fokuserar på rättsområdena diskrimineringsskydd, anställningsskydd, arbetsmiljöskydd samt integritetsskydd.

EU-rättens utveckling, genom att FN konventionen numer utgör en del av unionsrätten inom ramen för diskrimineringsskyddet, vilket bl.a. fastslogs genom de förenade målen HK Danmark mot Dansk almennyttig Boligselskab/Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, har öppnat för att överviktiga personer med varaktig arbetsnedsättning ska kunna omfattas av diskrimineringsgrunden funktionshinder. För överviktiga som omfattas av funktionshinderbegreppet erbjuder diskrimineringslagen ett omfattande skydd.

Arbetsgivaren har en vidsträckt skyldighet att trygga en god arbetsmiljö för överviktiga, enligt direktiv 89/391/EG som implementerats genom arbetsmiljölagen. Rehabiliterings- och anpassningsåtgärder aktualiseras dock endast för de överviktiga arbetstagare som är sjuka. Detta utgör i princip samma grupp av överviktiga arbetstagare, som i ett senare stadium även skulle kunna omfattas av diskrimineringslagens funktionshinderbegrepp.

Skydd för överviktiga personers integritet stadgas i bl.a. art. 8 EKMR och art. 3 EU-stadgan. Privata arbetsgivares möjligheter att samla in uppgifter om arbetssökandes hälsa samt att begära hälsokontroller har i vissa fall ansetts falla inom ramen för arbetsgivarens arbetsledningsrätt. Av praxis framgår dock att det är nödvändigt att göra en avvägning mellan arbetsgivarens intresse av kontroll och arbetstagarens rätt till personlig integritet. Genom granskning av praxis framgår att integritetskränkningar av överviktiga i princip endast kan accepteras om åtgärderna är nödvändiga för att arbetsgivaren ska kunna uppfylla sina skyldigheter enligt arbetsmiljölagen.

Det kan vidare konstateras att kombinationen av att en arbetsgivare ej är skyldig att iaktta turordningsreglerna i samband med omplacering, att verksamhetsskälen till en arbetsbrist sällan överprövas av domstol, att förekomsten av arbetsbrist i en situation med splittrad motivbild konsumerar andra bakomliggande skäl av personlig karaktär samt att 23 § LAS har ett snävt tillämpningsområde, medför att anställningsskyddslagen erbjuder ett begränsat skydd mot godtyckliga uppsägningar av överviktiga arbetstagare.

En slutsats som kunnat dras är att det arbetsrättsliga skyddet inte väger upp det faktum att överviktiga utgör en mycket heterogen grupp. Detta blir särskilt tydligt då endast en mindre grupp överviktiga kan erhålla diskrimineringsskydd. (Less)
Abstract
Excess weight or obesity appears to be a devastating social stigma, especially in the employment sector. Taking this into account, the aim of this thesis is to investigate and analyse overweight peoples’ Labour Law protection during the recruitment process, during employment and on termination of employment. The thesis’ main focus is on protection from discrimination, employment protection, workers environment protection and privacy rights.

EU Law has developed in the direction so that the United Nations Convention now constitutes a part of EU law within the area of protection from discrimination, which was established by the joint cases HK Danmark mot Dansk almennyttig Boligselskab/Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening. This development has... (More)
Excess weight or obesity appears to be a devastating social stigma, especially in the employment sector. Taking this into account, the aim of this thesis is to investigate and analyse overweight peoples’ Labour Law protection during the recruitment process, during employment and on termination of employment. The thesis’ main focus is on protection from discrimination, employment protection, workers environment protection and privacy rights.

EU Law has developed in the direction so that the United Nations Convention now constitutes a part of EU law within the area of protection from discrimination, which was established by the joint cases HK Danmark mot Dansk almennyttig Boligselskab/Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening. This development has created a possibility for overweight employees with an illness that causes a permanent limitation to be included in the concept of disability. The anti-discrimination law provides considerable protection for overweight individuals covered by the disability concept.

According to the Framework Directive 89/391/ EC, as implemented by the Swedish Work Environment Act, the employer has an extensive obligation to ensure a good working environment for overweight employees. However, rehabilitation and adjustment measures come into play only if the employee is suffering from illness. This represents basically the same group of people that at a later stage might be included in the concept of disability in Council Directive 2000/78/EC.

The protection for overweight employee’s privacy rights is provided by (inter alia) the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms article 8 and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU article 3. It has sometimes been considered that private employers’ possibility to collect data and to require physical examination has fallen within in the scope of the employers’ labour management rights. However this is not always the situation and case law shows that the employers’ interest in the physical examination must be balanced against the employees’ interest of privacy. It can be found in established practice from the Swedish Labour Court that privacy rights violations of overweight employees’ in principle only should be accepted if deemed necessary for the employer to fulfil his obligations according to the Work Environment Act.

Furthermore, it is found that the combination of the employers’ right to reassign employees regardless of priority rules, the fact that the courts rarely review reasons for redundancy, that the presence of redundancy masks other underlying reasons of a personal nature, and the narrow application of LAS §23 all entail that the Employment Protection Act provides only a limited protection for overweight employees against arbitrary termination of employment.

One conclusion that can be made from the thesis is that Labour Law protection doesn’t take into account that overweight people represents a heterogeneousness group. This becomes particularly clear as only a limited group of overweight people is covered by the protection provided by the Swedish Discrimination Act. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Alberius, Sarah LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
When the Weight Matters- An Analysis of Swedish Labour Law Protection for Overweight People from a European Legal Perspective
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
arbetsrätt, funktionshinder, övervikt, integritet, skäliga- stöd och anpassningsåtgärder, likabehandlingsdirektivet, arbetsmiljö
language
Swedish
id
4239163
date added to LUP
2014-01-27 08:45:37
date last changed
2014-01-27 08:45:37
@misc{4239163,
  abstract     = {Excess weight or obesity appears to be a devastating social stigma, especially in the employment sector. Taking this into account, the aim of this thesis is to investigate and analyse overweight peoples’ Labour Law protection during the recruitment process, during employment and on termination of employment. The thesis’ main focus is on protection from discrimination, employment protection, workers environment protection and privacy rights. 

EU Law has developed in the direction so that the United Nations Convention now constitutes a part of EU law within the area of protection from discrimination, which was established by the joint cases HK Danmark mot Dansk almennyttig Boligselskab/Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening. This development has created a possibility for overweight employees with an illness that causes a permanent limitation to be included in the concept of disability. The anti-discrimination law provides considerable protection for overweight individuals covered by the disability concept. 

According to the Framework Directive 89/391/ EC, as implemented by the Swedish Work Environment Act, the employer has an extensive obligation to ensure a good working environment for overweight employees. However, rehabilitation and adjustment measures come into play only if the employee is suffering from illness. This represents basically the same group of people that at a later stage might be included in the concept of disability in Council Directive 2000/78/EC. 

The protection for overweight employee’s privacy rights is provided by (inter alia) the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms article 8 and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU article 3. It has sometimes been considered that private employers’ possibility to collect data and to require physical examination has fallen within in the scope of the employers’ labour management rights. However this is not always the situation and case law shows that the employers’ interest in the physical examination must be balanced against the employees’ interest of privacy. It can be found in established practice from the Swedish Labour Court that privacy rights violations of overweight employees’ in principle only should be accepted if deemed necessary for the employer to fulfil his obligations according to the Work Environment Act. 

Furthermore, it is found that the combination of the employers’ right to reassign employees regardless of priority rules, the fact that the courts rarely review reasons for redundancy, that the presence of redundancy masks other underlying reasons of a personal nature, and the narrow application of LAS §23 all entail that the Employment Protection Act provides only a limited protection for overweight employees against arbitrary termination of employment. 

One conclusion that can be made from the thesis is that Labour Law protection doesn’t take into account that overweight people represents a heterogeneousness group. This becomes particularly clear as only a limited group of overweight people is covered by the protection provided by the Swedish Discrimination Act.},
  author       = {Alberius, Sarah},
  keyword      = {arbetsrätt,funktionshinder,övervikt,integritet,skäliga- stöd och anpassningsåtgärder,likabehandlingsdirektivet,arbetsmiljö},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {När vikten väger in- en analys av det arbetsrättsliga skyddet för överviktiga i svensk rätt ur ett EU-rättsligt perspektiv},
  year         = {2013},
}