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Normativ tvåsamhet och bortskrivna existenser i familjerätten

Lidslot, Ida LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Utgångspunkten för denna uppsats är att det i det svenska samhället råder en stark norm kring tvåsamhet som grund för familjebildning, vilket blir tydligt redan i första kapitlet i ÄktB i vilket det framgår vilka som har rätt att gifta sig - de som befinner i sig i en parrelation. Polygami i form av månggifte är emellertid olagligt. I uppsatsen studeras hur tvåsamheten legitimeras och vad som uttrycks om den samt hur den möjliggör eller omöjliggör individers sätt att organisera sina liv och sin tillvaro. Uppsatsens frågeställningar lyder: hur befäster rätten på området tvåsamhet som norm?, samt hur möjlig- eller omöjliggörs familjekonstellationer bestående av en vuxen eller fler vuxna än två?

I uppsatsen identifieras och analyseras den... (More)
Utgångspunkten för denna uppsats är att det i det svenska samhället råder en stark norm kring tvåsamhet som grund för familjebildning, vilket blir tydligt redan i första kapitlet i ÄktB i vilket det framgår vilka som har rätt att gifta sig - de som befinner i sig i en parrelation. Polygami i form av månggifte är emellertid olagligt. I uppsatsen studeras hur tvåsamheten legitimeras och vad som uttrycks om den samt hur den möjliggör eller omöjliggör individers sätt att organisera sina liv och sin tillvaro. Uppsatsens frågeställningar lyder: hur befäster rätten på området tvåsamhet som norm?, samt hur möjlig- eller omöjliggörs familjekonstellationer bestående av en vuxen eller fler vuxna än två?

I uppsatsen identifieras och analyseras den gällande rätten med fokus på områdena “äktenskap”, “samboskap”, “adoption” och “assisterad befruktning”. Mer specifikt identifieras utifrån nämnda fokus rådande diskurser som omfattar ensamstående, flersamma och tvåsamma personer. Genom rättsdogmatisk metod och med queerteorier som grund bearbetas materialet som till största del består av förarbeten. Förståelsen för diskursanalysen bygger på att makt är inbyggt i språket och att kunskapsproduktionen på så vis har en inneboende maktaspekt. I det rättsliga materialet är det lagstiftaren som uttalar vilka relationer som ska ges bekräftelse och som följd av detta ges skydd i lagstiftningen.

En viktig grund för den teoretiska förståelsen av uppsatsen är begreppet heteronormativitet, som kan förstås som en förväntan om att en viss form av heterosexualitet ska uppbäras av alla människor. Heteronormativiteten kan anses ha två bärande principer; uteslutningen av avvikelser ur normen med uppdelning i kategorierna vi – de samt assimileringen genom införlivande av avvikelser i normen. En av uppsatsens slutsatser är att det är samma mekanismer som gör att ensamstående, icke-heterosexuella likväl flersamma, har kunnat marginaliseras i lagstiftningen – den mekanism som har gjort det heterosexuella paret till en hegemonisk position genom att göra det till norm. Detta har möjliggjorts genom diskurser där (tvåsam) heterosexualitet görs till det naturliga och ställs i skarp kontrast till homosexualitet och icke-tvåsamhet som istället pekas ut som det onaturliga. Vad som blir tydligt är att polygami ses som förkastligt, vilket av förarbetena och lagstiftningen främst uttrycks genom att samlevnadsformen som sådan inte bemöts. När väl så sker är det då den ställs mot rådande tvåsamhetsnorm eller likställs med incest.

Vidare bygger uppsatsen sin förståelse på att tystnaden om en grupp säger något om den maktrelation den innefattas i. Makten är inneboende i kunskapen och den som producerar kunskap, vilket lagstiftaren gör, är delaktig i att befästa och upprätthålla maktförhållanden. Foucault framhåller att de diskurser som framträder synliggör ett maktförhållande, dels genom vad som sägs, dels genom vad som inte sägs. Att identifiera även tystnaden är därför väsentligt eftersom den är inbyggd i makten och att förtegenheten därmed kan skydda maktens förbud. Således spelar tystnaden en viktig roll i upprätthållandet av makten.

Genom uppsatsens redogörelse av den gällande rätten framkommer att mycket har hänt på lagstiftningsområdet under de senaste 30 åren, vilket har utmanat den heteronormativa föreställningsvärlden. Homosexuella har fått tillträde till äktenskapslagstiftningen och lesbiska par har givits möjlighet att låta sig insemineras. Det har även beslutats att regeringen ska återkomma med ett lagförslag kring hur möjligheten till assisterad befruktning för ensamstående kvinnor bör se ut. Emellertid går det att ifrågasätta tillvägagångssättet för detta. Rosenberg menar att det som har skett är att likställas med en assimileringspolitik, där det avvikande har kommit att inneslutas i normen på normens villkor. Av de diskurser som framträder i uppsatsens rättsliga material framkommer också att normen, vilken lagstiftaren konsekvent utgår från, bygger på heterosexuell tvåsamhet. Det är denna det avvikande - det vill säga de flersamma, ensamstående och homosexuella - måste förhålla sig till och anpassa sig efter. Genom att det som faller inom normen uppfattas som naturligt krävs ingen förklaring eller motivering för att legitimeras och därigenom uppnå en hegemonisk position i samhället. På så sätt naturaliseras normen vilket möjliggör för att den aldrig med stöd av forskning ska behöva underbyggas eller förklaras för att genom detta legitimeras. Det avvikande, som istället innesluts i det onaturligas diskurs, måste tvärtom med underbyggda argument och forskning påvisa sin rätt till såväl reglerad samlevnad som familjebildning.

Genom att normen i grunden inte har utmanats är det fortfarande acceptabelt att exkludera flersamma från sambo- likväl äktenskapslagstiftning gällande adoption och assisterad befruktning. Uppsatsens viktigaste slutsats är att för att en rättvis familjelagstiftning ska bli möjlig måste rätten istället för att legitimera (den heterosexuella) tvåsamhetsnormen rikta om sitt fokus och börja ifrågasätta den. De grupper som nu anses avvika från normen måste ses som en självklar del av familjerätten. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis is based on the assumption that Swedish society has a strong norm surrounding twosome togetherness as the basis for family construction. This is already evident in the first chapter of the Swedish Marriage Code, which refers to those eligible to marry as two persons in a relationship. Polygamy, however, is illegal. The thesis examines the legal concept of twoness; what is said about it and in what ways it is legitimised, as well as in what ways it enables or prevents individuals to organize their lives. The issues discussed in this thesis are: how is twosome togetherness as the norm legitimized by the law?, and what does the possibilities look like when creating a family consisting of an adult or more adults than two?

This... (More)
This thesis is based on the assumption that Swedish society has a strong norm surrounding twosome togetherness as the basis for family construction. This is already evident in the first chapter of the Swedish Marriage Code, which refers to those eligible to marry as two persons in a relationship. Polygamy, however, is illegal. The thesis examines the legal concept of twoness; what is said about it and in what ways it is legitimised, as well as in what ways it enables or prevents individuals to organize their lives. The issues discussed in this thesis are: how is twosome togetherness as the norm legitimized by the law?, and what does the possibilities look like when creating a family consisting of an adult or more adults than two?

This thesis identifies and analyses established legislation, which focuses on "matrimony", "cohabitants", "adoption" and "assisted reproduction". Specifically, based on the focuses above, it identifies prevailing discourses, which include “singles”, “polyamorous individuals” and “monogamous couples”. The material for this study, mainly consisting of legislative histories, has been processed using a legal dogmatic methodology and with a foundation in queer theory. The understanding of the discourse analysis is based on the assumption that power is integrated into our language and that the production of knowledge will therefore inherit a power aspect. In legal materials, it is the legislator who will define what relations should be given approval and as a result of this, protection in law.

An important basis for the theoretical understanding of this study is the concept of heteronormativity, which can be understood as an expectation that all individuals incorporate a certain form of heterosexuality. Heteronormativity can be considered to have two fundamental principles; exclusion of deviations from the norm with a breakdown into the categories of “us” and “them” and assimilation by incorporating variations into the norm. One of the conclusions of this thesis is that the same mechanisms that allow single, non-heterosexual and polyamorous individuals to become legislatively marginalized also allow the heterosexual couple to retain its hegemonic position by making it the norm. This is done through discourses where (twosome) heterosexuality is naturalized and is in sharp contrast to homosexuality and non-twosomeness, which instead is deemed to exemplify the unnatural.

It becomes clear that polygamy is seen as reprehensible, which is made evident by the legislative histories and the law not to acknowledge its existence or discuss it. On the rare occasion that the notion of polygamy is brought up, it is then set against the prevailing norm twosomes or equated with incest. The thesis also bases its understanding on the assumption that the silence surrounding a group tells us something about the power relations surrounding it. The power is inherent in knowledge, and those producing knowledge, such as the legislator, participate in consolidating and maintaining power relations. Foucault notes that discourses that emerge reveal a power relationship, by showing both what is said and by what is not said. It is therefore essential to also identify the silence as it is part of the power. The exclusions from the discourse may therefore help reinforce the bans made by those with power. Hence, silence plays an important role in maintaining power.

Through the thesis’s account of the development of the existing legislation, it is clear that much has happened in the legislative field over the last 30 years, which has challenged the heteronormative conception of the world. Gays and lesbians have been given access to the Marriage Code and lesbian couples have been given access to artificial insemination. It has also been decided that the government will prepare a suggestion for a bill regarding assisted reproduction for single women. However, the way in which this is being done can be questioned. Rosenberg claims that what has happened is to be compared to a policy of assimilation, where the deviant has come to be included in the norm, but only under the conditions of said norm. The discourses that emerge in the studied legal materials show that the norm, as consistently referred to by the legislators, is based on heterosexual twosomeness. It is to this that the deviant – that is, polyamorous individuals, singles and non-heterosexuals – must relate and adapt themselves. As that which falls within the norm is perceived as natural, there is no further need for it to be explained or justified in order to be legitimized. Thereby it achieves a hegemonic position in society. That which is deemed deviant and instead included in the discourse of the unnatural, must on the other hand use reasoned arguments and empirical research to prove that it is entitled to both regulated cohabitation and family construction.

As the foundation of the norm analysed in this thesis has not been challenged, it is still acceptable to deny polygamous individuals rights covered by the Cohabitees Act and the Marriage Code regarding adoption and assisted reproduction. The most important conclusion of the thesis is that the only possibly way of achieving fair and just family law, the legal system must change its focus and start questioning the norm of (heterosexual) twosomeness rather than continuing to legitimize it and thereby assigning it a hegemonic position. The groups that are now considered to deviate from the norm must be seen as a natural part of family law. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Lidslot, Ida LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Normative togetherness and unrecognised existences in family law
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
obligatoriska, kontrollerade ämnesord Heteronormativitet, diskurs, tvåsamhet
language
Swedish
id
4245437
date added to LUP
2014-02-10 06:59:47
date last changed
2014-02-10 06:59:47
@misc{4245437,
  abstract     = {This thesis is based on the assumption that Swedish society has a strong norm surrounding twosome togetherness as the basis for family construction. This is already evident in the first chapter of the Swedish Marriage Code, which refers to those eligible to marry as two persons in a relationship. Polygamy, however, is illegal. The thesis examines the legal concept of twoness; what is said about it and in what ways it is legitimised, as well as in what ways it enables or prevents individuals to organize their lives. The issues discussed in this thesis are: how is twosome togetherness as the norm legitimized by the law?, and what does the possibilities look like when creating a family consisting of an adult or more adults than two? 

This thesis identifies and analyses established legislation, which focuses on "matrimony", "cohabitants", "adoption" and "assisted reproduction". Specifically, based on the focuses above, it identifies prevailing discourses, which include “singles”, “polyamorous individuals” and “monogamous couples”. The material for this study, mainly consisting of legislative histories, has been processed using a legal dogmatic methodology and with a foundation in queer theory. The understanding of the discourse analysis is based on the assumption that power is integrated into our language and that the production of knowledge will therefore inherit a power aspect. In legal materials, it is the legislator who will define what relations should be given approval and as a result of this, protection in law.

An important basis for the theoretical understanding of this study is the concept of heteronormativity, which can be understood as an expectation that all individuals incorporate a certain form of heterosexuality. Heteronormativity can be considered to have two fundamental principles; exclusion of deviations from the norm with a breakdown into the categories of “us” and “them” and assimilation by incorporating variations into the norm. One of the conclusions of this thesis is that the same mechanisms that allow single, non-heterosexual and polyamorous individuals to become legislatively marginalized also allow the heterosexual couple to retain its hegemonic position by making it the norm. This is done through discourses where (twosome) heterosexuality is naturalized and is in sharp contrast to homosexuality and non-twosomeness, which instead is deemed to exemplify the unnatural.

It becomes clear that polygamy is seen as reprehensible, which is made evident by the legislative histories and the law not to acknowledge its existence or discuss it. On the rare occasion that the notion of polygamy is brought up, it is then set against the prevailing norm twosomes or equated with incest. The thesis also bases its understanding on the assumption that the silence surrounding a group tells us something about the power relations surrounding it. The power is inherent in knowledge, and those producing knowledge, such as the legislator, participate in consolidating and maintaining power relations. Foucault notes that discourses that emerge reveal a power relationship, by showing both what is said and by what is not said. It is therefore essential to also identify the silence as it is part of the power. The exclusions from the discourse may therefore help reinforce the bans made by those with power. Hence, silence plays an important role in maintaining power.

Through the thesis’s account of the development of the existing legislation, it is clear that much has happened in the legislative field over the last 30 years, which has challenged the heteronormative conception of the world. Gays and lesbians have been given access to the Marriage Code and lesbian couples have been given access to artificial insemination. It has also been decided that the government will prepare a suggestion for a bill regarding assisted reproduction for single women. However, the way in which this is being done can be questioned. Rosenberg claims that what has happened is to be compared to a policy of assimilation, where the deviant has come to be included in the norm, but only under the conditions of said norm. The discourses that emerge in the studied legal materials show that the norm, as consistently referred to by the legislators, is based on heterosexual twosomeness. It is to this that the deviant – that is, polyamorous individuals, singles and non-heterosexuals – must relate and adapt themselves. As that which falls within the norm is perceived as natural, there is no further need for it to be explained or justified in order to be legitimized. Thereby it achieves a hegemonic position in society. That which is deemed deviant and instead included in the discourse of the unnatural, must on the other hand use reasoned arguments and empirical research to prove that it is entitled to both regulated cohabitation and family construction.

As the foundation of the norm analysed in this thesis has not been challenged, it is still acceptable to deny polygamous individuals rights covered by the Cohabitees Act and the Marriage Code regarding adoption and assisted reproduction. The most important conclusion of the thesis is that the only possibly way of achieving fair and just family law, the legal system must change its focus and start questioning the norm of (heterosexual) twosomeness rather than continuing to legitimize it and thereby assigning it a hegemonic position. The groups that are now considered to deviate from the norm must be seen as a natural part of family law.},
  author       = {Lidslot, Ida},
  keyword      = {obligatoriska,kontrollerade ämnesord Heteronormativitet,diskurs,tvåsamhet},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Normativ tvåsamhet och bortskrivna existenser i familjerätten},
  year         = {2013},
}