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LUND UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

Hemundervisning på grund av religiösa skäl En studie av skollagens förenlighet med EKMR i fråga om föräldrars rätt att välja utbildning för sina barn.

Andersson, Madelene LU (2013) JURM02 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Uppsatsen syftar framförallt till att klarlägga huruvida den svenska skollagen står i strid med föräldrars rätt, enligt art. 2 TP 1 EKMR, att få sina religiösa övertygelser respekterade vid val av skolgång för sina barn. Den så kallade föräldrarätten.

EKMR gäller som lag i Sverige och regeringsformen föreskriver att ingen annan lag får stiftas som strider emot denna. När den nya skollagen trädde i kraft 2010 skärptes skolplikten och ett krav på synnerliga skäl lades till de redan existerade kraven för beviljande av hemskolning. De tidigare kraven var att utbildningen skulle vara ett fullgott alternativ till utbildningen i den vanliga skolan och tillräcklig insyn skulle ges i verksamheten. I förarbetena menade lagstiftaren att... (More)
Uppsatsen syftar framförallt till att klarlägga huruvida den svenska skollagen står i strid med föräldrars rätt, enligt art. 2 TP 1 EKMR, att få sina religiösa övertygelser respekterade vid val av skolgång för sina barn. Den så kallade föräldrarätten.

EKMR gäller som lag i Sverige och regeringsformen föreskriver att ingen annan lag får stiftas som strider emot denna. När den nya skollagen trädde i kraft 2010 skärptes skolplikten och ett krav på synnerliga skäl lades till de redan existerade kraven för beviljande av hemskolning. De tidigare kraven var att utbildningen skulle vara ett fullgott alternativ till utbildningen i den vanliga skolan och tillräcklig insyn skulle ges i verksamheten. I förarbetena menade lagstiftaren att synnerliga skäl aldrig kunde utgöras av religiösa skäl – varför frågan har uppkommit om Sverige strider mot föräldrarätten i EKMR.

Uppsatsen tar sin utgångspunkt i hur reglerna om skolplikt ser ut i den svenska skollagen och vilka möjligheter lagen ger att fullgöra skolplikten på annat sätt – främst hemskolning. Fokus ligger på hemskolning på grund av religiösa skäl och lagstiftarens anledningar att förbjuda detta. I denna diskussion behandlas också hur detta förbud förhåller sig till andra viktiga principer i skolans värld – såsom barnets bästa och hur all undervisning i den allmänna skolan ska vara icke-konfessionell, saklig och allsidig.

I diskussionen kring skollagens förenlighet med EKMR diskuteras Europadomstolens praxis. Härur framkommer det att föräldrarätten är subsidiär till barns rätt till utbildning varför föräldrarätten aldrig får inskränka denna. Domstolen har dock tidigt gett uttryck för att det finns en rätt för föräldrar att bedriva fristående skolor och annan privat undervisning. Rätten att bedriva privatundervisning kan härledas tillbaka till syftet med föräldrarättens införande, nämligen att undvika indoktrinering från staten. Domstolen har i vissa fall även tagit hänsyn till att hemskolning funnits som alternativ när den statliga skolan inte ansetts vara i linje med det objektivitetskrav som måste vara uppfyllt för att föräldrarätten inte ska anses inskränkt. Idag har det dock skett en förskjutning av synen på föräldrarätten, då stater har en bred margin of appreciation gällande vad rätten innebär och vilka inskränkningar som kan anses rimliga. Samtidigt är risken för statlig indoktrinering liten varför föräldrarätten idag fått en väldigt smal innebörd. Det som krävs för att rättigheten ska anses uppfylld är att den kommunala skolan ska vara objektiv och förmedla kunskap på ett pluralistiskt och kritiskt sätt. Om detta gjorts får föräldrarätten anses respekterad då föräldrarna kan undervisa sina barn i enlighet med deras religiösa övertygelse utanför den vanliga skolan. Då den svenska skolan idag uppfyller kraven på en objektiv skolgång och då anledningen till att hemskolning inte tillåts är ett försök att stärka barns rätt till utbildning torde den svenska lagen vara förenlig med EKMR. (Less)
Abstract
This paper aims primarily at clarifying if the Swedish Education Act conflicts with the parental right in article 2 protocol number 1 ECHR – that is, the right of parents to have their religious beliefs respected while choosing education for their children.

ECHR has the status of law in Sweden. Further the constitution states that no other law may be passed if it conflicts with the ECHR. When the Education Act was passed in 2010 – the rules of compulsory school attendance became stricter. In addition to the requirements made by the previous law, the Education Act implemented a new requirement for parents who wished to be allowed to home school their child - that of extraordinary reasons. The previous requirements were that the... (More)
This paper aims primarily at clarifying if the Swedish Education Act conflicts with the parental right in article 2 protocol number 1 ECHR – that is, the right of parents to have their religious beliefs respected while choosing education for their children.

ECHR has the status of law in Sweden. Further the constitution states that no other law may be passed if it conflicts with the ECHR. When the Education Act was passed in 2010 – the rules of compulsory school attendance became stricter. In addition to the requirements made by the previous law, the Education Act implemented a new requirement for parents who wished to be allowed to home school their child - that of extraordinary reasons. The previous requirements were that the alternative education needed to be a adequate substitute to the education that the child would get in for example the state school and that the state had to be given sufficient insight into the education at home. It is stated in the preparatory works that religious reasons cannot form extraordinary reasons. This is why the question of this essay, whether the Education Act conflicts with parental rights in the ECHR or not, has arisen.

This essay examines rules on compulsory schooling in the Education Act and the opportunities the law provides to fulfil compulsory school attendance through home schooling. The focus is on home schooling due to religious reasons and the legislature's reasons to prohibit it. This discussion also addresses how the ban of home schooling relates to other important principles in the education act, such as the best interest of the child and the principle of an objective and non-religious education.

In the examination of the Education Act’s compatibility with the European convention the case law of the European court of Human Rights is important. The court has stated that parental rights are secondary to the child's right to education and that parental rights must never conflict with the child´s right. Nevertheless, the court early on recognized the existence of a right for parents to engage in any form of private teaching of their children. This is compatible with the original purpose of the parental right - avoiding indoctrination by the state. The Court has also taken into consideration that home schooling existed as an option in the cases where the state school was not considered to be in line with the objectivity requirements that must be met to fulfil the parental rights. Today, however, there has been a shift in view on parental rights. This is due to the fact that States have a broad margin of appreciation regarding what the law requires and what restrictions in the parental rights that may be considered reasonable. At the same time, the risk of state indoctrination is considered small and parental rights today must be said to have a very narrow scope. For the parental rights to be respected it is considered enough that the public school is objective and the teaching is done in pluralistic and critical manner. Parental rights are thus considered respected due to the fact that parents are free to teach their children at home, after mandatory school hours. With this in mind it can be concluded that the Swedish Education act is compatible with the ECHR and art. 2 of Protocol No. 1. The reasons for this is that the Swedish school today meets the requirements of a pluralistic and objective state school and that the reasons for why home schooling is not allowed must be considered acceptable as they aim at strengthening children's rights to education. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Andersson, Madelene LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Home schooling for religious reasons A study of the compatibility of the Swedish Education Act and Parental Rights in ECHR.
course
JURM02 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Familjerätt, Hemskolning, Hemundervisning, Föräldrarätt
language
Swedish
id
4246676
date added to LUP
2014-01-22 06:29:07
date last changed
2014-01-22 06:29:07
@misc{4246676,
  abstract     = {This paper aims primarily at clarifying if the Swedish Education Act conflicts with the parental right in article 2 protocol number 1 ECHR – that is, the right of parents to have their religious beliefs respected while choosing education for their children. 

ECHR has the status of law in Sweden. Further the constitution states that no other law may be passed if it conflicts with the ECHR. When the Education Act was passed in 2010 – the rules of compulsory school attendance became stricter. In addition to the requirements made by the previous law, the Education Act implemented a new requirement for parents who wished to be allowed to home school their child - that of extraordinary reasons. The previous requirements were that the alternative education needed to be a adequate substitute to the education that the child would get in for example the state school and that the state had to be given sufficient insight into the education at home. It is stated in the preparatory works that religious reasons cannot form extraordinary reasons. This is why the question of this essay, whether the Education Act conflicts with parental rights in the ECHR or not, has arisen.

This essay examines rules on compulsory schooling in the Education Act and the opportunities the law provides to fulfil compulsory school attendance through home schooling. The focus is on home schooling due to religious reasons and the legislature's reasons to prohibit it. This discussion also addresses how the ban of home schooling relates to other important principles in the education act, such as the best interest of the child and the principle of an objective and non-religious education.

In the examination of the Education Act’s compatibility with the European convention the case law of the European court of Human Rights is important. The court has stated that parental rights are secondary to the child's right to education and that parental rights must never conflict with the child´s right. Nevertheless, the court early on recognized the existence of a right for parents to engage in any form of private teaching of their children. This is compatible with the original purpose of the parental right - avoiding indoctrination by the state. The Court has also taken into consideration that home schooling existed as an option in the cases where the state school was not considered to be in line with the objectivity requirements that must be met to fulfil the parental rights. Today, however, there has been a shift in view on parental rights. This is due to the fact that States have a broad margin of appreciation regarding what the law requires and what restrictions in the parental rights that may be considered reasonable. At the same time, the risk of state indoctrination is considered small and parental rights today must be said to have a very narrow scope. For the parental rights to be respected it is considered enough that the public school is objective and the teaching is done in pluralistic and critical manner. Parental rights are thus considered respected due to the fact that parents are free to teach their children at home, after mandatory school hours. With this in mind it can be concluded that the Swedish Education act is compatible with the ECHR and art. 2 of Protocol No. 1. The reasons for this is that the Swedish school today meets the requirements of a pluralistic and objective state school and that the reasons for why home schooling is not allowed must be considered acceptable as they aim at strengthening children's rights to education.},
  author       = {Andersson, Madelene},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt,Hemskolning,Hemundervisning,Föräldrarätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Hemundervisning på grund av religiösa skäl En studie av skollagens förenlighet med EKMR i fråga om föräldrars rätt att välja utbildning för sina barn.},
  year         = {2013},
}