Skip to main content

LUP Student Papers

LUND UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

Artikel 101 FEUF: dess historiska identitet i ljuset av moderniseringsprocessen

Gimbergsson, Erik LU (2013) JURM01 20132
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Stommen för den europeiska konkurrensrätten har till stor del utvecklats från Freiburgskolans ordoliberala ideal, enligt vilken konkurrensprocessen och individens handlingsfrihet sågs som förutsättningar för ett fritt samhälles existens. Med syfte att upprätta en gemensam inre marknad gjordes formalistiska avtalstolkningar under artikel 101 FEUF där vertikala avtals välfärdseffekter inte gärna erkändes i kommissionens och EG-domstolens avtalsbedömningar. Strukturalismen ska emellertid inte skyllas på ordoliberalismen och dess högt hållna princip om freedom-of-action, då både kommissionen och domstolen prioriterat målet om en integrerad marknad framför en allokativ resursfördelning gynnandes konsumentens välfärd.

Moderniseringen av den... (More)
Stommen för den europeiska konkurrensrätten har till stor del utvecklats från Freiburgskolans ordoliberala ideal, enligt vilken konkurrensprocessen och individens handlingsfrihet sågs som förutsättningar för ett fritt samhälles existens. Med syfte att upprätta en gemensam inre marknad gjordes formalistiska avtalstolkningar under artikel 101 FEUF där vertikala avtals välfärdseffekter inte gärna erkändes i kommissionens och EG-domstolens avtalsbedömningar. Strukturalismen ska emellertid inte skyllas på ordoliberalismen och dess högt hållna princip om freedom-of-action, då både kommissionen och domstolen prioriterat målet om en integrerad marknad framför en allokativ resursfördelning gynnandes konsumentens välfärd.

Moderniseringen av den europeiska konkurrensrätten har inte skett över en natt och har långt ifrån varit entydig. Ekonomiska element i avtalsanalyser under artikel 101 FEUF har under många år fått stå tillbaka för målet om marknadsintegrationen och förespråkare av en annorlunda välfärdsparadigm inom konkurrensrätten –särskilt gällande synen på vertikala avtal- har haft svårt att hävda sig mot kommissions formalistiska approach. De genomförda förändringarna har inte bara påkallats av praktiska skäl för att underlätta en ökande arbetsbörda utan även av insikten att en reform behövdes av tolkningen av artikel 101 FEUF. Debatten var i stort sett pågående ända sedan Romfördragets stiftande, ofta med referenser till amerikansk antitrust law och dess version av rule of reason som flitigt diskuterats i jämförelse med kommissionens förhållningssätt till vertikala avtal.

Både Harvardskolan och den senare Chicagoskolan har utgjort viktiga källor till inspiration av synen på avtalsanalyser men det ordoliberala arvet lyser fortfarande igenom med idén om en ekonomisk konstitution som skulle skydda individens handlingsfrihet. Konkurrensrätten har med de multipla målen blivit mer ett verktyg än ett mål i sig, där konsumenten fått en allt viktigare roll, även om avgörandet i GlaxoSmithKline visar att marknadsintegrationen på intet sätt är uträknad. (Less)
Abstract
The concept of a united European community might not be Ordoliberal but the foundation of what it is built upon is to a large extent. The project of integrating the European markets was seen as an important peace keeping incentive and according to Ordoliberal ideals the competition process was regarded as a crucial component of a social market economy. Both the European Court and the European Commission have been accused of applying an over formalistic approach to agreements in conflict with article 101 FEUF, either on the ground of hampering the integration goal or impeding the principle of freedom-of-action without taking into account their economical efficiencies. The case law has been far from consistent between the commission and the... (More)
The concept of a united European community might not be Ordoliberal but the foundation of what it is built upon is to a large extent. The project of integrating the European markets was seen as an important peace keeping incentive and according to Ordoliberal ideals the competition process was regarded as a crucial component of a social market economy. Both the European Court and the European Commission have been accused of applying an over formalistic approach to agreements in conflict with article 101 FEUF, either on the ground of hampering the integration goal or impeding the principle of freedom-of-action without taking into account their economical efficiencies. The case law has been far from consistent between the commission and the courts, but vertical agreements were for a long time targeted by both as malign which was the cause of serious debates within the community about who the competition law really was to protect: the competitors or the competition process?

The American antitrust law served as an important source of inspiration in the debate, although the principle of rule of reason never acquired acceptance in Europe. The paradigm shift towards a more lax attitude came in the 1990’s after the commission realized its formalistic approach was out of date and they understood the importance of economic efficiencies in an allocative and innovative matter. The modernization was welcomed and came as a result of a series of events over time: the globalization which had called for the need of a more efficient European market but also procedural motives since the community’s members had increased. Consumer welfare has since climbed in rank as a community goal, but the market integration has not lost its position as a leading competition objective which the outcome of the GlaxoSmithKline case shows. The amplification of the multiple goal policy in competition law shows a less defensive attitude towards (economical) efficiency arguments when applying article 101 FEUF.

One can still attribute plenty of features in the evolution of the European competition to American antitrust law when looking at the analytical model inspired from the Harvard School or even the Chicago School when discussing economic efficiencies. The influence to the Rome Treaty’s drafting process is however disputed. A rudiment fact though is the heritage the ordoliberals provided for: the idea of a constitutional framework and the stance of a competition process as a significant component in a market society; with other words the corner stone of the European Union. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Gimbergsson, Erik LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The historical identity of Article 101 FEUF in the light of the modernisation process
course
JURM01 20132
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
EU-rätt, EU law, 101 FEUF, Freiburg, ordoliberalism, konkurrensrätt, konkurrensbegränsande avtal, konkurrenspolicy, moderniseringsprocess, formalism, rule of reason
language
Swedish
id
4252184
date added to LUP
2014-01-29 14:56:49
date last changed
2014-01-29 14:56:49
@misc{4252184,
  abstract     = {The concept of a united European community might not be Ordoliberal but the foundation of what it is built upon is to a large extent. The project of integrating the European markets was seen as an important peace keeping incentive and according to Ordoliberal ideals the competition process was regarded as a crucial component of a social market economy. Both the European Court and the European Commission have been accused of applying an over formalistic approach to agreements in conflict with article 101 FEUF, either on the ground of hampering the integration goal or impeding the principle of freedom-of-action without taking into account their economical efficiencies. The case law has been far from consistent between the commission and the courts, but vertical agreements were for a long time targeted by both as malign which was the cause of serious debates within the community about who the competition law really was to protect: the competitors or the competition process? 

The American antitrust law served as an important source of inspiration in the debate, although the principle of rule of reason never acquired acceptance in Europe. The paradigm shift towards a more lax attitude came in the 1990’s after the commission realized its formalistic approach was out of date and they understood the importance of economic efficiencies in an allocative and innovative matter. The modernization was welcomed and came as a result of a series of events over time: the globalization which had called for the need of a more efficient European market but also procedural motives since the community’s members had increased. Consumer welfare has since climbed in rank as a community goal, but the market integration has not lost its position as a leading competition objective which the outcome of the GlaxoSmithKline case shows. The amplification of the multiple goal policy in competition law shows a less defensive attitude towards (economical) efficiency arguments when applying article 101 FEUF. 

One can still attribute plenty of features in the evolution of the European competition to American antitrust law when looking at the analytical model inspired from the Harvard School or even the Chicago School when discussing economic efficiencies. The influence to the Rome Treaty’s drafting process is however disputed. A rudiment fact though is the heritage the ordoliberals provided for: the idea of a constitutional framework and the stance of a competition process as a significant component in a market society; with other words the corner stone of the European Union.},
  author       = {Gimbergsson, Erik},
  keyword      = {EU-rätt,EU law,101 FEUF,Freiburg,ordoliberalism,konkurrensrätt,konkurrensbegränsande avtal,konkurrenspolicy,moderniseringsprocess,formalism,rule of reason},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Artikel 101 FEUF: dess historiska identitet i ljuset av moderniseringsprocessen},
  year         = {2013},
}