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Toxicity of the ibuprofen degradation product 4’-IBAP

Szot, Marta (2014) BIOM14 20132
Degree Projects in Biology
Abstract
Abstract

NSAIDs are some of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in surface waters. As a consequence, their possible impact on the environment has raised concern and therefore they have become one of the most studied groups of chemicals in recent years. However, there is still not much known about the occurrence and possible effects of the degradation products of NSAIDs. 4’-IBAP, a phototransformation product of ibuprofen has been found neurotoxic to humans, but its effects on aquatic species have not been assessed and there is virtually no data about its environmental occurrence. In this study, toxic effects were assessed by performing 48h D. magna acute toxicity tests. Results showed around 10 times higher toxicity of 4’-IBAP... (More)
Abstract

NSAIDs are some of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in surface waters. As a consequence, their possible impact on the environment has raised concern and therefore they have become one of the most studied groups of chemicals in recent years. However, there is still not much known about the occurrence and possible effects of the degradation products of NSAIDs. 4’-IBAP, a phototransformation product of ibuprofen has been found neurotoxic to humans, but its effects on aquatic species have not been assessed and there is virtually no data about its environmental occurrence. In this study, toxic effects were assessed by performing 48h D. magna acute toxicity tests. Results showed around 10 times higher toxicity of 4’-IBAP compared to ibuprofen and 4’-IBAP is expected to be a major contributor to overall ibuprofen toxicity during photodegradation. In a degradation experiment, starting with the active ingredient ibuprofen, toxicity increased around two times after three days of light exposure and three times after seven days. These findings bring the conclusion that for sufficient risk assessment it is necessary to monitor the occurrence of degradation products and study their long term toxicity. (Less)
Abstract
Popular science summary

Non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most consumed pharmaceuticals worldwide, and thus belong to the most frequently identified pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. Until now multiple examinations have shown adverse effects of NSAIDs on life functions of aquatic organisms even in low concentrations. However, there is still lack of data about toxicity of degradation products of chemicals from this group.

4’-IBAP is a phototransformation product of ibuprofen and it might constitute up to 15% of ibuprofen concentration in the surface waters, although there is almost no data available about its environmental occurrence and persistence. It causes environmental concern because it has been... (More)
Popular science summary

Non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most consumed pharmaceuticals worldwide, and thus belong to the most frequently identified pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. Until now multiple examinations have shown adverse effects of NSAIDs on life functions of aquatic organisms even in low concentrations. However, there is still lack of data about toxicity of degradation products of chemicals from this group.

4’-IBAP is a phototransformation product of ibuprofen and it might constitute up to 15% of ibuprofen concentration in the surface waters, although there is almost no data available about its environmental occurrence and persistence. It causes environmental concern because it has been found to be neurotoxic in humans and its effects on aquatic species still have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of 4’-IBAP to aquatic organisms and try to assess the 4’-IBAP contribution, as ibuprofen transformation product in overall ibuprofen toxicity.

In this study, toxic effects were assessed by performing 48h Daphnia magna acute toxicity tests according to the procedure in the OECD guideline 202. D. magna test was used to investigate 4’-IBAP toxicity and the change in ibuprofen toxicity over time under light exposure.

Results showed around 10 times higher toxicity of 4’-IBAP compared to ibuprofen. During three days of light exposure ibuprofen toxicity increased around two times and in the time of a seven days, ibuprofen toxicity increased around three times. The observed change in ibuprofen toxicity during degradation test is considered to be of environmental importance and is expected to be primarily due to 4’-IBAP toxic activity. It has been shown that, from 13 detected degradation products of ibuprofen two of them have indicated both in vivo and in vitro toxic effects. One of them is 4’-IBAP and another is 1-(4-isobutylphenyl)-1-ethanol, which is the subsequent form of 4’-IBAP.

In conclusion, the 4’IBAP transformation product of ibuprofen is toxic to aquatic life with possible long lasting effects. I have shown that its toxicity is higher than the parent compound, although its free environmental concentrations are virtually unknown in present moment. That evidences the need for further investigations regarding 4’-IBAP. These findings bring the conclusion that for sufficient risk assessment it is necessary to monitor the occurrence of degradation products and study their long term toxicity.


Advisor: Olof Berglund
Master´s Degree Project 30 credits in Ecotoxicology 2013/2014
Department of Biology, Lund University (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Szot, Marta
supervisor
organization
course
BIOM14 20132
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
language
English
id
4436895
date added to LUP
2014-05-09 14:03:39
date last changed
2014-05-09 14:03:39
@misc{4436895,
  abstract     = {Popular science summary

Non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most consumed pharmaceuticals worldwide, and thus belong to the most frequently identified pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. Until now multiple examinations have shown adverse effects of NSAIDs on life functions of aquatic organisms even in low concentrations. However, there is still lack of data about toxicity of degradation products of chemicals from this group.

4’-IBAP is a phototransformation product of ibuprofen and it might constitute up to 15% of ibuprofen concentration in the surface waters, although there is almost no data available about its environmental occurrence and persistence. It causes environmental concern because it has been found to be neurotoxic in humans and its effects on aquatic species still have not been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of 4’-IBAP to aquatic organisms and try to assess the 4’-IBAP contribution, as ibuprofen transformation product in overall ibuprofen toxicity.

In this study, toxic effects were assessed by performing 48h Daphnia magna acute toxicity tests according to the procedure in the OECD guideline 202. D. magna test was used to investigate 4’-IBAP toxicity and the change in ibuprofen toxicity over time under light exposure.

Results showed around 10 times higher toxicity of 4’-IBAP compared to ibuprofen. During three days of light exposure ibuprofen toxicity increased around two times and in the time of a seven days, ibuprofen toxicity increased around three times. The observed change in ibuprofen toxicity during degradation test is considered to be of environmental importance and is expected to be primarily due to 4’-IBAP toxic activity. It has been shown that, from 13 detected degradation products of ibuprofen two of them have indicated both in vivo and in vitro toxic effects. One of them is 4’-IBAP and another is 1-(4-isobutylphenyl)-1-ethanol, which is the subsequent form of 4’-IBAP.

In conclusion, the 4’IBAP transformation product of ibuprofen is toxic to aquatic life with possible long lasting effects. I have shown that its toxicity is higher than the parent compound, although its free environmental concentrations are virtually unknown in present moment. That evidences the need for further investigations regarding 4’-IBAP. These findings bring the conclusion that for sufficient risk assessment it is necessary to monitor the occurrence of degradation products and study their long term toxicity.


Advisor: Olof Berglund
Master´s Degree Project 30 credits in Ecotoxicology 2013/2014
Department of Biology, Lund University},
  author       = {Szot, Marta},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Toxicity of the ibuprofen degradation product 4’-IBAP},
  year         = {2014},
}