Advanced

Vad är barnets bästa? En diskursanalytisk studie av principen i vårdnadsmål

Alija, Adelina LU (2014) JURM02 20141
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Förevarande uppsats behandlar vårdnadsregleringen i 6 kap. föräldrabalken (1949:381) och huvudsakligen principen om barnets bästa. Den finns i 6 kap. 2 a § FB som stadgar att barnets bästa skall vara avgörande för alla beslut om vårdnad. Att objektivt fastställa vad som är barnets bästa är idag inte möjligt. Vissa riktlinjer för domstolens bedömning finns i lag och förarbeten. Men lagstiftaren har i slutändan låtit ansvaret ligga på domstolen respektive socialnämnden att göra bedömningen om vad som är barnets bästa i varje enskild situation. Principen är därmed ämnad att få sitt innehåll i tillämpningen. Lagstiftarens motvillighet till att närmare ange innebörden av principen har motiverats av rädslan att domstolens flexibilitet skulle gå... (More)
Förevarande uppsats behandlar vårdnadsregleringen i 6 kap. föräldrabalken (1949:381) och huvudsakligen principen om barnets bästa. Den finns i 6 kap. 2 a § FB som stadgar att barnets bästa skall vara avgörande för alla beslut om vårdnad. Att objektivt fastställa vad som är barnets bästa är idag inte möjligt. Vissa riktlinjer för domstolens bedömning finns i lag och förarbeten. Men lagstiftaren har i slutändan låtit ansvaret ligga på domstolen respektive socialnämnden att göra bedömningen om vad som är barnets bästa i varje enskild situation. Principen är därmed ämnad att få sitt innehåll i tillämpningen. Lagstiftarens motvillighet till att närmare ange innebörden av principen har motiverats av rädslan att domstolens flexibilitet skulle gå förlorad, om man i lag förtydligade vad som menas med principen om barnets bästa. Syftet med framställningen blir vidare att undersöka innebörden av principen om barnets bästa i vårdnadsmål.

Till min hjälp har jag använt mig av ett rättsvetenskapligt samt ett diskursanalytiskt angreppssätt. Uppsatsen börjar med en deskriptiv del med en rättshistorisk bakgrund av barnrättens utveckling. Vidare studeras även den internationella samt nationella rätten, där jag genom en rättsvetenskaplig metod försöker redogöra för betydelsen av principen om barnets bästa. Uppsatsens andra del består av en diskursanalys av det familjerättsliga materialet, utifrån Michael Foucault diskursteori. Inspiration till metoden hämtas även från Norman Faircloughs kritiska diskursanalys. Uppsatsens tredje del består sedan av en diskursanalys av konkret rättstillämpning, bestående av publicerade vägledande rättsfall från och med 2006 års vårdnadsreform.

I uppsatsens avslutande del konstateras att de olika diskurser som framgår av det familjerättsliga materialet, återfinns i analysen av rättstillämpningen. Trots att lagstiftarens mål är flexibilitet blir detta inte fallet i realiteten, då de diskurser som framgår av rätten blir uttömmande och inte exemplifierande. Det konstateras även att diskurserna konstruerar subjektet, barnet, på olika sätt. Den diskurs som tydligast sätter barnet i fokus är diskursen om barnets vilja. Men då den är en atypisk diskurs i rättstillämpningen, begränsas barns handlingsutrymme. Problemet anses bottna i att en splittrad syn på barnet finns enligt rätten. Sammanfattningsvis konstateras att för att det subjekt som lagstiftaren anser vara huvudperson i mål om vårdnad, verkligen ska bli det, krävs tydliga utgångspunkter om vad som är barnets bästa, samt att barnets vilja får en central plats vid bedömningen om barnets bästa. (Less)
Abstract
This essay deals with the legal custody legislation in chapter 6 of the Parental Code (1949), and primarily the principle of the best interests of the child. The principle can be found in 6.2 a § in the Parental Code, which stipulates that the best interests of the child shall be decisive for all decisions concerning legal custody. To objectively determine what is in the best interests of the child is not possible today. The law and preparatory work hold some guidelines for the court’s assessment. But in the end, the legislator has put the responsibility on the court and the Social Welfare Board to make the assessment of what is in the best interests of the child in each individual situation. Thus, the principle is intended to get its... (More)
This essay deals with the legal custody legislation in chapter 6 of the Parental Code (1949), and primarily the principle of the best interests of the child. The principle can be found in 6.2 a § in the Parental Code, which stipulates that the best interests of the child shall be decisive for all decisions concerning legal custody. To objectively determine what is in the best interests of the child is not possible today. The law and preparatory work hold some guidelines for the court’s assessment. But in the end, the legislator has put the responsibility on the court and the Social Welfare Board to make the assessment of what is in the best interests of the child in each individual situation. Thus, the principle is intended to get its content by the application of the law. The legislator’s reluctance to clarify the meaning of the principle has been motivated by the fear that the court's flexibility would be lost, if it is in law clarified what is meant by the principle of the best interests of the child. The main purpose of this essay is therefore to explore and analyze the meaning of the principle in custody law and custody cases.

I have used the legal method and the discourse analysis as methods to resolve my research issues. The essay begins with a descriptive part with the legal history and the development of the child law. Furthermore, the international and the Swedish legislation are also studied where I, by using the legal method, try to account for the meaning of the principle of the best interests of the child. The second part of the essay consists of a discourse analysis of the legal material defining legal custody, based on Michael Foucault's discourse theory. Inspiration for the analysis is also obtained from Norman Fairclough's critical discourse analysis. The third part of the essay then consists of a discourse analysis on law enforcement, consisting of published guiding court cases as of the 2006 custody reform.

In the concluding part of the essay it is found that the different discourses that appear in the legal material defining legal custody, are also to be found in the analysis of the law enforcement. Despite the fact that the legislator’s objective is flexibility this is not the case in reality, when the discourses in the legal material are exhaustive and not exemplary. It is also noted that discourses construct the subject, the child, in different ways. The discourse that most clearly places the child in focus is the discourse of the child's wishes. But as it is an atypical discourse in law enforcement, the child’s capacity for action is limited. The problem is considered to stem from the fragmented view of the child in the legal material. In conclusion, it is noticed that for the subject that the legislator considers being the main person in legal custody cases, to really obtain that role, requires clear premises on what is in the best interests of the child, as well as the child’s wishes to be given a central place in the assessment of the best interests of the child. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Alija, Adelina LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
What is in the best interests of the child? A discourse analytical study of the principle in custody law and custody cases
course
JURM02 20141
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
familjerätt, vårdnad, barnets bästa, diskursanalys
language
Swedish
id
4436964
date added to LUP
2014-06-12 08:32:41
date last changed
2014-06-12 08:32:41
@misc{4436964,
  abstract     = {This essay deals with the legal custody legislation in chapter 6 of the Parental Code (1949), and primarily the principle of the best interests of the child. The principle can be found in 6.2 a § in the Parental Code, which stipulates that the best interests of the child shall be decisive for all decisions concerning legal custody. To objectively determine what is in the best interests of the child is not possible today. The law and preparatory work hold some guidelines for the court’s assessment. But in the end, the legislator has put the responsibility on the court and the Social Welfare Board to make the assessment of what is in the best interests of the child in each individual situation. Thus, the principle is intended to get its content by the application of the law. The legislator’s reluctance to clarify the meaning of the principle has been motivated by the fear that the court's flexibility would be lost, if it is in law clarified what is meant by the principle of the best interests of the child. The main purpose of this essay is therefore to explore and analyze the meaning of the principle in custody law and custody cases.

I have used the legal method and the discourse analysis as methods to resolve my research issues. The essay begins with a descriptive part with the legal history and the development of the child law. Furthermore, the international and the Swedish legislation are also studied where I, by using the legal method, try to account for the meaning of the principle of the best interests of the child. The second part of the essay consists of a discourse analysis of the legal material defining legal custody, based on Michael Foucault's discourse theory. Inspiration for the analysis is also obtained from Norman Fairclough's critical discourse analysis. The third part of the essay then consists of a discourse analysis on law enforcement, consisting of published guiding court cases as of the 2006 custody reform.

In the concluding part of the essay it is found that the different discourses that appear in the legal material defining legal custody, are also to be found in the analysis of the law enforcement. Despite the fact that the legislator’s objective is flexibility this is not the case in reality, when the discourses in the legal material are exhaustive and not exemplary. It is also noted that discourses construct the subject, the child, in different ways. The discourse that most clearly places the child in focus is the discourse of the child's wishes. But as it is an atypical discourse in law enforcement, the child’s capacity for action is limited. The problem is considered to stem from the fragmented view of the child in the legal material. In conclusion, it is noticed that for the subject that the legislator considers being the main person in legal custody cases, to really obtain that role, requires clear premises on what is in the best interests of the child, as well as the child’s wishes to be given a central place in the assessment of the best interests of the child.},
  author       = {Alija, Adelina},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,vårdnad,barnets bästa,diskursanalys},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Vad är barnets bästa? En diskursanalytisk studie av principen i vårdnadsmål},
  year         = {2014},
}