Advanced

Urban heat island in Erbil City

Khalid, Nazar LU (2014) In Student thesis series INES NGEM01 20131
Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
Abstract
Popular science
Most cities have been growing and developing at an accelerated rate throughout the world, in both developing and developed countries. Urban growth and development removes the natural land cover and replaces it with a new cover of manmade features (e.g. buildings, streets, industrial areas, commercial complexes etc.). Accordingly, the local climate of these cites has been modified by new land use and land cover alterations which has created the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. Erbil City in northern Iraq has been selected as a case study for the effect of urbanization on the local climate of the cities.
Two sets of data were used in this study: ground weather station maximum and minimum air temperature data, over a... (More)
Popular science
Most cities have been growing and developing at an accelerated rate throughout the world, in both developing and developed countries. Urban growth and development removes the natural land cover and replaces it with a new cover of manmade features (e.g. buildings, streets, industrial areas, commercial complexes etc.). Accordingly, the local climate of these cites has been modified by new land use and land cover alterations which has created the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. Erbil City in northern Iraq has been selected as a case study for the effect of urbanization on the local climate of the cities.
Two sets of data were used in this study: ground weather station maximum and minimum air temperature data, over a long period for the city and surrounding rural areas, and satellite image data of the city. The results from the analysis of weather station data revealed significant changes in the local climate of the city over the time series and when comparing the spatial trend of the city with rural stations(mainly for minimum air temperature). The satellite image was used to develop a map of NDVI for the city, which in turn was used to draw the land surface temperature map of Erbil City. From this map there were indications of temperature variations from the thermal reflections of each land use and land cover of the city. The greatest proliferation of hot spots is observed over industrial areas, where the UHI are expected to develop, while the coldest areas comprise green zones. (Less)
Abstract
Scientific summary
Urban growth and recent development removes the natural land cover and replaces it with a new cover of manmade features (e.g. buildings, streets, industrial areas, commercial complexes etc.). Accordingly, the local climate of these cites has been modified by new land use and land cover alterations which has created the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. Erbil City in northern Iraq has been selected as a case study for the effect of urbanization on the local climate of the cities.
In order to fulfill the study a two sets of data were used, maximum and minimum air temperatures data registered from ground weather station over a long period for the city and surrounding rural areas. A satellite image data of 2011 was also... (More)
Scientific summary
Urban growth and recent development removes the natural land cover and replaces it with a new cover of manmade features (e.g. buildings, streets, industrial areas, commercial complexes etc.). Accordingly, the local climate of these cites has been modified by new land use and land cover alterations which has created the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. Erbil City in northern Iraq has been selected as a case study for the effect of urbanization on the local climate of the cities.
In order to fulfill the study a two sets of data were used, maximum and minimum air temperatures data registered from ground weather station over a long period for the city and surrounding rural areas. A satellite image data of 2011 was also used to drive the land surface temperature for the city. The results from the analysis of weather station data revealed significant changes in the local climate of the city over the time series from the urban station. Minimum temperatures are the most affected one by the urban growth of the city mostly in the last decade of the time series. Inverse Distance Weight interpolation was applied in order to have a regional covering for the maximum and minimum temperatures. The satellite image was used to develop a map of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the city, which in turn was used to draw the land surface temperature map of Erbil City. From this map there were indications of temperature variations from the thermal reflections of each land use and land cover of the city. The greatest proliferation of hot spots is observed over industrial areas, where the UHI are expected to develop, while the coldest areas comprise green zones. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Khalid, Nazar LU
supervisor
organization
course
NGEM01 20131
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Erbil City. , temperature, climate, urban planning, urbanization, minimum air temperature, urban heat island, UHI
publication/series
Student thesis series INES
report number
308
language
English
id
4449039
date added to LUP
2014-05-27 11:44:53
date last changed
2014-05-27 11:44:53
@misc{4449039,
  abstract     = {Scientific summary
Urban growth and recent development removes the natural land cover and replaces it with a new cover of manmade features (e.g. buildings, streets, industrial areas, commercial complexes etc.). Accordingly, the local climate of these cites has been modified by new land use and land cover alterations which has created the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon. Erbil City in northern Iraq has been selected as a case study for the effect of urbanization on the local climate of the cities.
 In order to fulfill the study a two sets of data were used, maximum and minimum air temperatures data registered from ground weather station over a long period for the city and surrounding rural areas. A satellite image data of 2011 was also used to drive the land surface temperature for the city. The results from the analysis of weather station data revealed significant changes in the local climate of the city over the time series from the urban station. Minimum temperatures are the most affected one by the urban growth of the city mostly in the last decade of the time series. Inverse Distance Weight interpolation was applied in order to have a regional covering for the maximum and minimum temperatures. The satellite image was used to develop a map of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the city, which in turn was used to draw the land surface temperature map of Erbil City. From this map there were indications of temperature variations from the thermal reflections of each land use and land cover of the city. The greatest proliferation of hot spots is observed over industrial areas, where the UHI are expected to develop, while the coldest areas comprise green zones.},
  author       = {Khalid, Nazar},
  keyword      = {Erbil City. ,temperature,climate,urban planning,urbanization,minimum air temperature,urban heat island,UHI},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Student thesis series INES},
  title        = {Urban heat island in Erbil City},
  year         = {2014},
}