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Från rättighet till skyldighet - en komparativ studie av rätten till humanitär intervention och responsibility to protect

Grundberg, Johanna LU (2014) LAGF03 20141
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är att jämföra rätten till humanitär intervention med den på senare år utvecklade principen om responsibility to protect (R2P). Rätten till humanitär intervention innebär en möjlighet för stater att intervenera i en annan stat som kränker mänskliga rättigheter. R2P utgår istället från att suveränitetsprincipen inbegriper ett ansvar för stater att skydda sin befolkning. Om en stat inte kan eller vill ta detta ansvar får världssamfundet rätt att vidta åtgärder. Åtgärderna ska främst vara fredliga, och först som en sista utväg kan militär intervention bli aktuellt.

Anledning till att FN valde att utveckla principen om R2P istället för rätten till humanitär intervention var att man ansåg att debatten kring... (More)
Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är att jämföra rätten till humanitär intervention med den på senare år utvecklade principen om responsibility to protect (R2P). Rätten till humanitär intervention innebär en möjlighet för stater att intervenera i en annan stat som kränker mänskliga rättigheter. R2P utgår istället från att suveränitetsprincipen inbegriper ett ansvar för stater att skydda sin befolkning. Om en stat inte kan eller vill ta detta ansvar får världssamfundet rätt att vidta åtgärder. Åtgärderna ska främst vara fredliga, och först som en sista utväg kan militär intervention bli aktuellt.

Anledning till att FN valde att utveckla principen om R2P istället för rätten till humanitär intervention var att man ansåg att debatten kring frågan var för infekterad. De ville börja på nytt för att kunna finna en konsensus hos världssamfundet. Dessutom ansåg de att humanitär intervention utgick för mycket från rättigheten för en stat att intervenera, inte utifrån den lidande befolkningens behov. R2P grundar sig istället i ett ansvar för stater att skydda sin befolkning, och är snarare en skyldighet än en rättighet. Den största skillnaden mellan principerna är att R2P är formulerad i offentliga dokument. Både säkerhetsrådet och generalförsamlingen har röstat igenom principen. Principen om humanitär intervention har däremot aldrig blivit nedtecknad, och det är omdebatterat vad som egentligen gäller.

FN tog ett stort steg, med införandet av R2P, mot en tydligare och effektivare metod för att skydda gentemot kränkningar av mänskliga rättigheter. Trots det återstår det fortfarande hinder mot ett verkningsfullt skydd. Säkerhetsrådets vetoländer har möjlighet att stoppa interventioner som inte ligger i deras intressen. Dessutom bygger systemet på att stater är villiga att ställa militära trupper till FN:s förfogande. Dessa problem är samma nu som innan R2P infördes, och det återstår att se hur praxis kommer att utvecklas. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to compare the right of humanitarian intervention with the principle of responsibility to protect (R2P). Humanitarian intervention implicates an opportunity for states to intervene with military force in another state that violates human rights. R2P implies that sovereignty comprises a responsibility for states to protect their populations. If a state is unable or unwilling to assume this responsibility the international community has the right to take measures. These measures should primarily be peaceful, but military intervention could as a last resort be relevant.

The reason why the UN chose to develop the principle of R2P was that they considered the debate around humanitarian intervention too... (More)
The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to compare the right of humanitarian intervention with the principle of responsibility to protect (R2P). Humanitarian intervention implicates an opportunity for states to intervene with military force in another state that violates human rights. R2P implies that sovereignty comprises a responsibility for states to protect their populations. If a state is unable or unwilling to assume this responsibility the international community has the right to take measures. These measures should primarily be peaceful, but military intervention could as a last resort be relevant.

The reason why the UN chose to develop the principle of R2P was that they considered the debate around humanitarian intervention too infected. They would rather start again in order to find a consensus from the international community. Moreover, they considered humanitarian intervention to be based too much on the right of a state to intervene, and not the need of the suffering population. R2P is instead based on the responsibility of states to protect their populations, and is thus rather a duty than a right. The difference between the principles is that R2P is drafted in public documents. Both the Security Council and the General Assembly voted in favour of the principle. The principle of humanitarian intervention has however never been chronicled, and it is debated what really applies.

The UN took a big step, with the introduction of R2P, towards a clearer and more effective method to protect against human rights abuses. Nevertheless, there still exist obstacles to an effective protection. The veto powers in the Security Council have the capability to stop interventions that are not in their interests. Moreover, the system requires that states are willing to put their military forces at the UN's disposal. These problems are the same now as before R2P was introduced, and it remains to be seen how practice will evolve. (Less)
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author
Grundberg, Johanna LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20141
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Folkrätt, humanitär intervention, responsibility to protect
language
Swedish
id
4449288
date added to LUP
2014-06-17 14:04:38
date last changed
2014-06-17 14:04:38
@misc{4449288,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to compare the right of humanitarian intervention with the principle of responsibility to protect (R2P). Humanitarian intervention implicates an opportunity for states to intervene with military force in another state that violates human rights. R2P implies that sovereignty comprises a responsibility for states to protect their populations. If a state is unable or unwilling to assume this responsibility the international community has the right to take measures. These measures should primarily be peaceful, but military intervention could as a last resort be relevant. 

The reason why the UN chose to develop the principle of R2P was that they considered the debate around humanitarian intervention too infected. They would rather start again in order to find a consensus from the international community. Moreover, they considered humanitarian intervention to be based too much on the right of a state to intervene, and not the need of the suffering population. R2P is instead based on the responsibility of states to protect their populations, and is thus rather a duty than a right. The difference between the principles is that R2P is drafted in public documents. Both the Security Council and the General Assembly voted in favour of the principle. The principle of humanitarian intervention has however never been chronicled, and it is debated what really applies.

The UN took a big step, with the introduction of R2P, towards a clearer and more effective method to protect against human rights abuses. Nevertheless, there still exist obstacles to an effective protection. The veto powers in the Security Council have the capability to stop interventions that are not in their interests. Moreover, the system requires that states are willing to put their military forces at the UN's disposal. These problems are the same now as before R2P was introduced, and it remains to be seen how practice will evolve.},
  author       = {Grundberg, Johanna},
  keyword      = {Folkrätt,humanitär intervention,responsibility to protect},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Från rättighet till skyldighet - en komparativ studie av rätten till humanitär intervention och responsibility to protect},
  year         = {2014},
}