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Dynamisk skjuvreometer och kompletterande metoder för bitumenundersökningar

Kamil, Khalid and Jakobsson, Henrik (2014)
Programmes in Helesingborg
Abstract
Increasing heavy traffic on the roads raises demands on pavements and especially the binder of the pavements. The rutting and other deformations resistances are constantly improved. As a part of the development wax mixes and polymer modified variants are produced. These products are not anymore possible to classify with traditional test methods, requiring new measurement technique and new criteria. A Dynamic Shear Rheometer, DSR, avoids measurement problems with additives having different rheological properties and mixes can nevertheless be classified for pavement purposes by functional criteria. The Lund Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Society, acquired in 2013 a DSR for use in teaching, development and research. Using a... (More)
Increasing heavy traffic on the roads raises demands on pavements and especially the binder of the pavements. The rutting and other deformations resistances are constantly improved. As a part of the development wax mixes and polymer modified variants are produced. These products are not anymore possible to classify with traditional test methods, requiring new measurement technique and new criteria. A Dynamic Shear Rheometer, DSR, avoids measurement problems with additives having different rheological properties and mixes can nevertheless be classified for pavement purposes by functional criteria. The Lund Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Society, acquired in 2013 a DSR for use in teaching, development and research. Using a DSR the rheological properties of the binders could be measured with tests that assess the viscoelastic character at different temperatures and frequencies. This thesis continues a long series of development work with rheological measurement methods at the Faculty of Engineering to find solutions to problems and needs. Oscillating sweep test was conducted together with creep test under the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery, MSCR. This was supplemented with low temperature measurements, Bending Beam Rheometer, Fraass Breaking Point and Fracture Toughness Testing, used for full assessment of the bitumen for pavement applications. The latter measurements were conducted along with RTFOT and PAV by Nynas AB. Measurements were made using three types of bitumen, 70/ 100 Sas 85-3 (with 3 % Sasobit) and PMB, all of which also dealt with short-term aging in the form of RTFOT and long-term aging with RTFOT + PAV. This gave a total of nine different bitumen varieties to test. The measurements were conducted on the unmodified 70/100 acting as the reference to the wax and polymer modified variants. The results after RTFOT and RTFOT + PAV corresponded to the expected outcome with different degrees of aging. Unfortunately, the oscillatory measurements at 10-20 °C had to be deleted due to machine mishap. This did not affect the final results. There was unfortunately no progress with PP8, measurement platform for low temperatures, and in conclusion the manufacturing of test specimens require improvements for the results to be acceptable.
Sas 85-3 displays in a Black chart an unusual connection between the complex shear modulus and phase angle, which is explained by the presence of wax crystals. Angular frequency decreases with decreasing strain rate instead of increasing, as is the case of ordinary bitumen. The mixture can also be characterized as non- Newtonian. After RTFOT + PAV it loses the special properties of Sasobit and behaves accordingly more like a normal, aged bitumen. The polymer-modified mixture, PMB, appears also in a Black chart differently compared to unmodified bitumen. Generally, the binder is stiffer than 70/100 but the correlation with the phase angles form themselves differently. This particular look is smoothed out after RTFOT + PAV. We need more measurements with other polymer-modified variants, particularly at low temperatures to get to know the specific nature of polymer modified bitumen blends. With PP8 we would have been able to measure down to -30 °C. At the creep tests under MSCR 70/100 exhibits almost no elastic recovery but still manages creep criterion at 64 °C. For many years it has been known and shown empirically that Sasobit increases wheel track stability and this is illustrated by the improved creep capacity, although improvement compared to 70/100 is moderate. Somewhat surprisingly, there is an appreciable elastic recovery, which otherwise is usually reserved for polymer modifications. PMB displays all the expected characteristics in terms of strong elastic recovery and good creep properties at as high a temperature as 76 °C. According to traditional Superpave Performance Grading based on G^* and sin(d) all of the binders meet respective fatigue criteria. 70/100 lands in PG-class 64-22, Sas 85-3 in PG 70-22 and PMB in PG 76-22. Fraass values of 70/100 and PMB at -18 °C and -17 °C meet the Swedish binder criteria with a good margin, while Sas 85-3 lands spot on the limit value, -12 °C. Fracture Toughness is a new test for low temperature testing of bitumen, which has no limits in the regulations and has few references. 70/100 is within the expected range at -8 °C, while the PMB is far below the other two at -30 °C. Sas 85-3 parks at +2.5 °C. The results suggest structural differences between the binders but the assessment of the impact of these results must wait. Improved specimen manufacturing for PP8, program templates for LVE controls and MSCR temperature sweeps and checking for constant readings are high on the wish list of future theses, besides procedures to avoid instrument compliance. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Kamil, Khalid and Jakobsson, Henrik
organization
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
dsr, dynamisk skjuvreometer, bitumen, sasobit, polymermodifierat, mscr, kryptest, reologi, superpave
language
Swedish
id
4467597
date added to LUP
2014-06-17 03:43:41
date last changed
2018-10-18 10:29:03
@misc{4467597,
  abstract     = {Increasing heavy traffic on the roads raises demands on pavements and especially the binder of the pavements. The rutting and other deformations resistances are constantly improved. As a part of the development wax mixes and polymer modified variants are produced. These products are not anymore possible to classify with traditional test methods, requiring new measurement technique and new criteria. A Dynamic Shear Rheometer, DSR, avoids measurement problems with additives having different rheological properties and mixes can nevertheless be classified for pavement purposes by functional criteria. The Lund Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Society, acquired in 2013 a DSR for use in teaching, development and research. Using a DSR the rheological properties of the binders could be measured with tests that assess the viscoelastic character at different temperatures and frequencies. This thesis continues a long series of development work with rheological measurement methods at the Faculty of Engineering to find solutions to problems and needs. Oscillating sweep test was conducted together with creep test under the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery, MSCR. This was supplemented with low temperature measurements, Bending Beam Rheometer, Fraass Breaking Point and Fracture Toughness Testing, used for full assessment of the bitumen for pavement applications. The latter measurements were conducted along with RTFOT and PAV by Nynas AB. Measurements were made using three types of bitumen, 70/ 100 Sas 85-3 (with 3 % Sasobit) and PMB, all of which also dealt with short-term aging in the form of RTFOT and long-term aging with RTFOT + PAV. This gave a total of nine different bitumen varieties to test. The measurements were conducted on the unmodified 70/100 acting as the reference to the wax and polymer modified variants. The results after RTFOT and RTFOT + PAV corresponded to the expected outcome with different degrees of aging. Unfortunately, the oscillatory measurements at 10-20 °C had to be deleted due to machine mishap. This did not affect the final results. There was unfortunately no progress with PP8, measurement platform for low temperatures, and in conclusion the manufacturing of test specimens require improvements for the results to be acceptable.
Sas 85-3 displays in a Black chart an unusual connection between the complex shear modulus and phase angle, which is explained by the presence of wax crystals. Angular frequency decreases with decreasing strain rate instead of increasing, as is the case of ordinary bitumen. The mixture can also be characterized as non- Newtonian. After RTFOT + PAV it loses the special properties of Sasobit and behaves accordingly more like a normal, aged bitumen. The polymer-modified mixture, PMB, appears also in a Black chart differently compared to unmodified bitumen. Generally, the binder is stiffer than 70/100 but the correlation with the phase angles form themselves differently. This particular look is smoothed out after RTFOT + PAV. We need more measurements with other polymer-modified variants, particularly at low temperatures to get to know the specific nature of polymer modified bitumen blends. With PP8 we would have been able to measure down to -30 °C. At the creep tests under MSCR 70/100 exhibits almost no elastic recovery but still manages creep criterion at 64 °C. For many years it has been known and shown empirically that Sasobit increases wheel track stability and this is illustrated by the improved creep capacity, although improvement compared to 70/100 is moderate. Somewhat surprisingly, there is an appreciable elastic recovery, which otherwise is usually reserved for polymer modifications. PMB displays all the expected characteristics in terms of strong elastic recovery and good creep properties at as high a temperature as 76 °C. According to traditional Superpave Performance Grading based on G^* and sin(d) all of the binders meet respective fatigue criteria. 70/100 lands in PG-class 64-22, Sas 85-3 in PG 70-22 and PMB in PG 76-22. Fraass values of 70/100 and PMB at -18 °C and -17 °C meet the Swedish binder criteria with a good margin, while Sas 85-3 lands spot on the limit value, -12 °C. Fracture Toughness is a new test for low temperature testing of bitumen, which has no limits in the regulations and has few references. 70/100 is within the expected range at -8 °C, while the PMB is far below the other two at -30 °C. Sas 85-3 parks at +2.5 °C. The results suggest structural differences between the binders but the assessment of the impact of these results must wait. Improved specimen manufacturing for PP8, program templates for LVE controls and MSCR temperature sweeps and checking for constant readings are high on the wish list of future theses, besides procedures to avoid instrument compliance.},
  author       = {Kamil, Khalid and Jakobsson, Henrik},
  keyword      = {dsr,dynamisk skjuvreometer,bitumen,sasobit,polymermodifierat,mscr,kryptest,reologi,superpave},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Dynamisk skjuvreometer och kompletterande metoder för bitumenundersökningar},
  year         = {2014},
}