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2010 års hyresreform -nödvändig för att ej stå i strid med EU-rättens konkurrens- och statsstödsregler?

Bacinska, Justina LU (2014) JURM02 20141
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sammanfattning
Den svenska bostadshyresmarknaden präglas av en öppenhet för alla grupper i samhället. Syftet med den svenska bostadspolitiken är att skapa social, ekonomisk och etnisk mångfald i alla stadsdelar genom att kunna erbjuda prisvärt boende samt hyra oavsett inkomst. För att nå detta mål, införde Sverige samma hyressättningssystem för alla typer av bostäder, oavsett om de tillhandahölls av privata eller offentliga bostadsföretag.

EU-samarbetet har påverkat den svenska bostadspolitiken genom dess konkurrens och statsstödsregler. Syftet med den gemensamma marknaden är en öppenhet och fri rörlighet för varor samt handel. Den svenska bostadshyresmarknaden påstås begränsa samhandeln genom att de kommunala bostadsföretagen... (More)
Sammanfattning
Den svenska bostadshyresmarknaden präglas av en öppenhet för alla grupper i samhället. Syftet med den svenska bostadspolitiken är att skapa social, ekonomisk och etnisk mångfald i alla stadsdelar genom att kunna erbjuda prisvärt boende samt hyra oavsett inkomst. För att nå detta mål, införde Sverige samma hyressättningssystem för alla typer av bostäder, oavsett om de tillhandahölls av privata eller offentliga bostadsföretag.

EU-samarbetet har påverkat den svenska bostadspolitiken genom dess konkurrens och statsstödsregler. Syftet med den gemensamma marknaden är en öppenhet och fri rörlighet för varor samt handel. Den svenska bostadshyresmarknaden påstås begränsa samhandeln genom att de kommunala bostadsföretagen tilldelats en hyresnormerande roll vid hyresprövningar. Därför har den svenska modellen med allmännyttiga bostadsföretag ifrågasatts utifrån om den är förenlig med EU:s konkurrens- och statsstödsregler.

2005 tillsatte regeringen en utredning för att undersöka den svenska lagens förenlighet med EU-rätten. Utredningen EU, allmännyttan och hyrorna (SOU 2008:38) presenterades 2008 följt av Prop. 2008/10:185 om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag och reformerade hyressättningsregler. Det resulterade i lagändringar som trädde i kraft 1 januari 2011 genom lag (2010:879) för kommunala bostadsaktiebolag för att vara förenliga med EU-rätten. Bostadsföretagen har fått ett lagstadgat samhällsuppdrag. De ska i allmännyttigt syfte främja bostadsförsörjningen i kommunerna samtidigt som de bedriver verksamheten efter affärsmässiga principer.

En nyckelfråga har varit om bostadsförsörjningen eller de allmännyttiga bostadsföretagens verksamhet till någon del ska betraktas som tjänster av allmänt ekonomiskt intresse och därmed få möjlighet att ta emot statsstöd. Med den nya lagen blir det inte så, utan de allmännyttiga bostadsföretagen ska drivas enligt affärsmässiga principer och kommunerna måste alltså iaktta EU:s generella statsstödsregler i förhållande till sina bostadsföretag. De undantas därmed från förbudet för kommuner att bedriva verksamhet i vinstsyfte samt från den kommunala självkostnadsprincipen.

Uppsatsen analyserar 2010 års hyresreform och undersöker huruvida de lagändringar som gjordes, var nödvändiga eller om det system vi hade tidigare var tillräcklig när det gäller EU: s konkurrens-och statsstödsregler.

Slutsatsen som nås är att det svenska regelverket kring hyresbostäder omfattas av EU-rätten och att den hyresnormerande roll som allmännyttan tidigare hade stred mot de EU-rättsliga reglerna kring konkurrensbegränsning och gavs fördelen av statligt stöd som de privata företagen inte fick. Främjandet av bostadsförsörjningen hålls dock öppet för att vara en tjänst av allmänt ekonomiskt intresse där stöd möjligtvis kan ges då det är en tolkningsfråga för varje medlemstat att avgöra. (Less)
Abstract
Summary
The Swedish housing market is characterized by being accessible to all groups in society and by the objective of achieving an overall social cohesion in its rental market. The purpose of this is to further integration and counter segregation by creating diverse neighborhoods accessible to all groups in society regardless of social status and for a reasonable price. To reach this goal, Sweden introduced the same rent setting system for all types of housing, whether they are provided by private or public housing companies.

The Swedish EU membership has affected the housing policy through its competition and state aid rules. The Common Market is characterized by its open and free market of movement of goods and trade. The Swedish... (More)
Summary
The Swedish housing market is characterized by being accessible to all groups in society and by the objective of achieving an overall social cohesion in its rental market. The purpose of this is to further integration and counter segregation by creating diverse neighborhoods accessible to all groups in society regardless of social status and for a reasonable price. To reach this goal, Sweden introduced the same rent setting system for all types of housing, whether they are provided by private or public housing companies.

The Swedish EU membership has affected the housing policy through its competition and state aid rules. The Common Market is characterized by its open and free market of movement of goods and trade. The Swedish housing market was alleged of having distorted competition and restrict inter-state trade by the municipal housing companies. The housing companies were assigned a rental normative role which the private companies had to lead by. The municipal housing companies were also given state aid which the private companies were not given and this was also seen as distortive.

In 2005 the Swedish government appointed a committee to investigate the Swedish Act's compatibility with EU law. The Inquiry SOU 2008:38 EU, allmännyttan och hyrorna was presented in 2008, followed by Prop. 2008/10:185 om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag och reformerade hyressättningsregler. The result of the above investigations led to the amendments that entered into force on January 1st, 2011. Regulation of the municipal housing companies have taken a new shape by Act (2010:879) för kommunala bostadsaktiebolag to be compatible with EU law. Housing companies have received a statutory social mandate. They shall provide public housing in the municipalities and run the housing companies according to business principles.

A key question has been whether the housing companies in any part shall be considered suppliers of services of general economic interest (SGEI) in connection with the EU state aid rules. With the new law this will not be possible, but the public housing companies will be run according to business principles and municipalities must therefore observe the general EU state aid rules in relation to their housing company. They are therefore excluded from the ban for municipalities to conduct business for profit as well as from the municipal prime cost principle.

The essay analyzes the 2010 rental reform and investigates whether or not the legislative changes that were made, were necessary or if the system we had before was sufficient in regards to EU competition and State aid-law.

The outcome of my results is that the Swedish Tenancy Act with the municipal housing companies and their rent normative role in fact was distorting competition and being given the advantage of State aid which the private companies did not get. As for the question on services of general interest (SGEI) being exempt from the state aid rules there is still a possibility as it is a matter of interpretation for each member state. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Bacinska, Justina LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
The 2010 Rental Reform -necessary to not be in violation with EU Competition and State Aid rules?
course
JURM02 20141
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Tenancy Law Competition law State Aid Konkurrensrätt Statsstöd Hyresrätt
language
Swedish
id
4467610
date added to LUP
2014-09-19 08:19:57
date last changed
2014-10-06 07:02:45
@misc{4467610,
  abstract     = {Summary
The Swedish housing market is characterized by being accessible to all groups in society and by the objective of achieving an overall social cohesion in its rental market. The purpose of this is to further integration and counter segregation by creating diverse neighborhoods accessible to all groups in society regardless of social status and for a reasonable price. To reach this goal, Sweden introduced the same rent setting system for all types of housing, whether they are provided by private or public housing companies.

The Swedish EU membership has affected the housing policy through its competition and state aid rules. The Common Market is characterized by its open and free market of movement of goods and trade. The Swedish housing market was alleged of having distorted competition and restrict inter-state trade by the municipal housing companies. The housing companies were assigned a rental normative role which the private companies had to lead by. The municipal housing companies were also given state aid which the private companies were not given and this was also seen as distortive.

In 2005 the Swedish government appointed a committee to investigate the Swedish Act's compatibility with EU law. The Inquiry SOU 2008:38 EU, allmännyttan och hyrorna was presented in 2008, followed by Prop. 2008/10:185 om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag och reformerade hyressättningsregler. The result of the above investigations led to the amendments that entered into force on January 1st, 2011. Regulation of the municipal housing companies have taken a new shape by Act (2010:879) för kommunala bostadsaktiebolag to be compatible with EU law. Housing companies have received a statutory social mandate. They shall provide public housing in the municipalities and run the housing companies according to business principles.

A key question has been whether the housing companies in any part shall be considered suppliers of services of general economic interest (SGEI) in connection with the EU state aid rules. With the new law this will not be possible, but the public housing companies will be run according to business principles and municipalities must therefore observe the general EU state aid rules in relation to their housing company. They are therefore excluded from the ban for municipalities to conduct business for profit as well as from the municipal prime cost principle.

The essay analyzes the 2010 rental reform and investigates whether or not the legislative changes that were made, were necessary or if the system we had before was sufficient in regards to EU competition and State aid-law.

The outcome of my results is that the Swedish Tenancy Act with the municipal housing companies and their rent normative role in fact was distorting competition and being given the advantage of State aid which the private companies did not get. As for the question on services of general interest (SGEI) being exempt from the state aid rules there is still a possibility as it is a matter of interpretation for each member state.},
  author       = {Bacinska, Justina},
  keyword      = {Tenancy Law Competition law State Aid Konkurrensrätt Statsstöd Hyresrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {2010 års hyresreform -nödvändig för att ej stå i strid med EU-rättens konkurrens- och statsstödsregler?},
  year         = {2014},
}