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An attempt to investigate the impact of 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda on landscape using remote sensing and GIS analysis

Rwaka, Maxime (2014) In Student thesis series INES NGEM01 20102
Dept of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
Abstract
The 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda affected the society, as well as its surrounding environment. By the use of Remote Sensing and GIS, the study looked at the evidence of change to the landscape by looking at vegetation based on NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)
To explain the reason behind the noticed change, the following parameters were used:
• rainfall variations,
• refugees and population number,
• GDP and agricultural production.

Rainfall was representing natural facts not related to Genocide while the rest of parameters were assessed as a result of Genocide. The landscape vegetation that prevailed before the genocide in 1987, during the genocide in 1995 and after the genocide in 2003 were reconstituted based on... (More)
The 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda affected the society, as well as its surrounding environment. By the use of Remote Sensing and GIS, the study looked at the evidence of change to the landscape by looking at vegetation based on NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)
To explain the reason behind the noticed change, the following parameters were used:
• rainfall variations,
• refugees and population number,
• GDP and agricultural production.

Rainfall was representing natural facts not related to Genocide while the rest of parameters were assessed as a result of Genocide. The landscape vegetation that prevailed before the genocide in 1987, during the genocide in 1995 and after the genocide in 2003 were reconstituted based on Landsat TM and ETM+ images. To explain the noticed change, socio-economic and environmental analysis was performed.

From Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery data, the following was found over the study period:
• NDVI decreased from 1987(0.54) to 1995(0.52), and increased from 1995(0.52) to 2003(0.54).
• The rainfall fluctuation proved to be different with the NDVI trend.
• Agricultural production and livestock showed that 1995 production was the lowest and 2003 the highest.
• The total number of Rwandan population was higher in 2003 and lower in 1995. Therefore, NDVI was not influenced by the total number if we look Rwanda as a whole.
• The number of refugees increased in 1995 to more than one million in Cyangugu, the region of study. It hosted that huge number, making it an exception in Rwanda, instead of having a decrease in population number, it witnessed an incredible increase, which resulted in an extensive use of land, and vegetation. This situation impacted the landscape, and is the main reason of the noticed change in NDVI, which was at its lowest in 1995.

To conclude, this study showed that remote sensing and vegetation indices could be used as an indicator of changes in vegetation related to human activities such as the 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda. (Less)
Popular Abstract
The 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda affected the society, as well as its surrounding environment. By the use of Remote Sensing and GIS, the study looked at the evidence of change to the landscape based on NDVI change, which is an index for vegetation change.

To explain the reason behind the noticed change, the following parameters were used:
• rainfall variations,
• refugees and population number,
• GDP and agricultural production.

Rainfall was representing other facts not related to Genocide while the rest of parameters were assessed as a result of Genocide

The landscape vegetation that prevailed before the genocide in 1987, during the genocide in 1995 and after the genocide in 2003 were reconstituted based on satellites... (More)
The 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda affected the society, as well as its surrounding environment. By the use of Remote Sensing and GIS, the study looked at the evidence of change to the landscape based on NDVI change, which is an index for vegetation change.

To explain the reason behind the noticed change, the following parameters were used:
• rainfall variations,
• refugees and population number,
• GDP and agricultural production.

Rainfall was representing other facts not related to Genocide while the rest of parameters were assessed as a result of Genocide

The landscape vegetation that prevailed before the genocide in 1987, during the genocide in 1995 and after the genocide in 2003 were reconstituted based on satellites images. To explain the noticed change, socio-economic and environmental analysis was performed.

It was found that, through the vegetation index, called NDVI, the landscape didn’t change much compared to the increase of the number of refugees of the study area in Cyangugu. The important fact is that the vegetation index was the same (0.54) for the period before the genocide (1987) and after the genocide (2003), while it decreased to 0.52, during the genocide period in 1995.

The study period was the same for all the three period. It was during the growing season, where the vegetation is dense. Among the mentioned parameters, the increase of refugees number to more than one million was the only relevant parameter to explain the noticed decrease of vegetation.

To conclude, this study showed that remote sensing and vegetation indices could be used as an indicator of changes in vegetation related to human activities such as the 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Rwaka, Maxime
supervisor
organization
course
NGEM01 20102
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
Landsat TM and ETM+, NDVI, agricultural production and GDP, refugees, rainfall, geomatics
publication/series
Student thesis series INES
report number
326
funder
Erasmus Mundus Programme
language
English
id
4762159
date added to LUP
2014-11-06 15:35:54
date last changed
2014-11-06 15:35:54
@misc{4762159,
  abstract     = {The 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda affected the society, as well as its surrounding environment. By the use of Remote Sensing and GIS, the study looked at the evidence of change to the landscape by looking at vegetation based on NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)
To explain the reason behind the noticed change, the following parameters were used: 
•	rainfall variations, 
•	refugees and population number, 
•	GDP and agricultural production. 

Rainfall was representing natural facts not related to Genocide while the rest of parameters were assessed as a result of Genocide. The landscape vegetation that prevailed before the genocide in 1987, during the genocide in 1995 and after the genocide in 2003 were reconstituted based on Landsat TM and ETM+ images. To explain the noticed change, socio-economic and environmental analysis was performed.

From Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery data, the following was found over the study period:
•	NDVI decreased from 1987(0.54) to 1995(0.52), and increased from 1995(0.52) to 2003(0.54). 
•	The rainfall fluctuation proved to be different with the NDVI trend.
•	Agricultural production and livestock showed that 1995 production was the lowest and 2003 the highest.
•	The total number of Rwandan population was higher in 2003 and lower in 1995. Therefore, NDVI was not influenced by the total number if we look Rwanda as a whole.
•	The number of refugees increased in 1995 to more than one million in Cyangugu, the region of study. It hosted that huge number, making it an exception in Rwanda, instead of having a decrease in population number, it witnessed an incredible increase, which resulted in an extensive use of land, and vegetation. This situation impacted the landscape, and is the main reason of the noticed change in NDVI, which was at its lowest in 1995.

To conclude, this study showed that remote sensing and vegetation indices could be used as an indicator of changes in vegetation related to human activities such as the 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda.},
  author       = {Rwaka, Maxime},
  keyword      = {Landsat TM and ETM+,NDVI,agricultural production and GDP,refugees,rainfall,geomatics},
  language     = {eng},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  series       = {Student thesis series INES},
  title        = {An attempt to investigate the impact of 1994 Tutsi Genocide in Rwanda on landscape using remote sensing and GIS analysis},
  year         = {2014},
}