Advanced

En modernare mutlagstiftning? - En studie av mutlagstiftningens utveckling och tillämpning med fokus på rekvisitet tjänstesamband

Pettersson, David LU (2015) LAGM01 20142
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Sverige har länge varit förskonat från korruption av större omfattning, landet brukar i Transparency Internationals årliga rapporter rankas som ett av länderna med minst korruption. Det senaste decenniet har dock flera stora korruptionshärvor i myndigheter och offentlig verksamhet uppmärksammats av media och väckt stort intresse hos allmänheten. Undersökningar som BRÅ publicerat visar att mutor i myndigheter sannolikt är vanligare än man tidigare trott. Den globalisering som till stor del styr samhällsutvecklingen innebär många möjligheter, men även en risk för att kulturer där korruption är mer accepterat smittar av sig på svenska myndigheter och företag.

Denna utveckling föranledde en översyn av den svenska mutlagstiftningen, vilken... (More)
Sverige har länge varit förskonat från korruption av större omfattning, landet brukar i Transparency Internationals årliga rapporter rankas som ett av länderna med minst korruption. Det senaste decenniet har dock flera stora korruptionshärvor i myndigheter och offentlig verksamhet uppmärksammats av media och väckt stort intresse hos allmänheten. Undersökningar som BRÅ publicerat visar att mutor i myndigheter sannolikt är vanligare än man tidigare trott. Den globalisering som till stor del styr samhällsutvecklingen innebär många möjligheter, men även en risk för att kulturer där korruption är mer accepterat smittar av sig på svenska myndigheter och företag.

Denna utveckling föranledde en översyn av den svenska mutlagstiftningen, vilken ledde till ändringar av lagen år 2012. Målet med utredningen var att åstadkomma en modernare och tydligare mutlagstiftning. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om den mutlagstiftning som nu är i kraft de facto är modern och tydlig. Lagstiftning har tidigare kritiserats för att vara alltför otydlig och generell. Har de senaste ändringarna avhjälpt de problem som kritikerna uppmärksammat?

En av lagstiftningens delar som kritiserats för att vara alltför otydlig är rekvisitet tjänstesamband. En förmån kan inte vara otillbörlig om den givits i ett sammanhang utanför tjänsten, t.ex. i ett vänskapsförhållande. Det går inte att direkt ur lagtexten ta reda på hur rekvisitet ska bedömas i oklara situationer. Ett mål med denna uppsats är att närmare undersöka hur rekvisitet tjänstesamband enligt gällande rätt bedöms i oklara situationer.

Min slutsats gällande rekvisitet tjänstesamband är att vissa oklarheter kring tolkningen under senare tid klargjorts genom avgöranden från HD. Dock kvarstår faktum att regleringen är otydlig och svårtolkad då lagstiftaren valde att till stora delar behålla mutlagstiftningens utformning, trots att man hade chansen att ta till sig den kritik som framfört och göra ändringar i lagens utformning.

Lagstiftningen är generellt hållen för att kunna täcka alla arbetstagare i samhället. Enligt lagstiftaren föranleder det generella skyddsintresset en generell lagstiftning. Min mening är att myndighetsutövning är särskilt skyddsvärd då den ytterst grundas på lagar och förordningar medan den privata sektorn har ett något lägre skyddsvärde. Därför bör mutlagstiftning ändras så att den innehåller egna och strängare bestämmelser för anställda med myndighetsutövande befogenheter. En uppdelning av lagstiftningen skulle också kunna göra den tydligare och lättare att tillämpa eftersom praxis och civila uppförandekoder då tydligare kan knytas till hänförbar sektor. (Less)
Abstract
Sweden has long been spared from the corruption of higher extent, Transparency International's annual reports usually rank the country as one of those with the least corruption. The last decade, however, several major cases of corruption in authorities and the public sector have attracted the attention of the media and great interest among the public. Investigations published by BRÅ show that bribes in public authorities is likely to be more common than previously thought. The globalization that largely govern society presents many opportunities, but also a risk that cultures where corruption is more accepted rubs off on the Swedish authorities and businesses.

This development prompted a review of the Swedish bribery legislation, which... (More)
Sweden has long been spared from the corruption of higher extent, Transparency International's annual reports usually rank the country as one of those with the least corruption. The last decade, however, several major cases of corruption in authorities and the public sector have attracted the attention of the media and great interest among the public. Investigations published by BRÅ show that bribes in public authorities is likely to be more common than previously thought. The globalization that largely govern society presents many opportunities, but also a risk that cultures where corruption is more accepted rubs off on the Swedish authorities and businesses.

This development prompted a review of the Swedish bribery legislation, which led to amendments to the law in 2012. The aim of the review was to provide a more modern and transparent legislation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether the bribery legislation, which is now in force, de facto is modern and clear. The bribery legislation has previously been criticized for being too vague and general. The question is if the latest amendments have remedied the problems that critics observed?

One part of the bribery legislation that has been criticized for being too vague is the necessary prerequisite connection to the service. A benefit may not be unfair if given in a context outside of the service, such as in a friendship relationship. It is impossible to discover how the necessary prerequisite will be assessed in ambiguous situations only by reading the text of the law. One goal of this thesis is to examine how the necessary prerequisite is assessed in ambiguous situations, by examining applicable law.

My conclusion regarding the necessary prerequisite connection to the service is that some uncertainties regarding the interpretation have been clarified by recent rulings of The Supreme Court. However, the fact remains that the regulation is unclear and difficult to interpret as the legislature chose to retain the original design of the bribery legislation, despite having had a chance to absorb the criticism put forward and make changes to the design of the legislation.

The legislation is generally held to cover all employees in the community. According to the legislature, the general protective interests prompts a generally held law. My opinion is that the exercise of public authority is particularly worthy of protection since it is ultimately founded on the laws and regulations, while the private sector has a slightly lower protective value. Therefore, the bribery legislation should be amended so that it contains its own, more stringent, rules for employees performing governmental powers. A fragmentation could also make the legislation clearer and easier to apply, since practice and civil codes can be associated with the attributable sector in a more pedagogical way. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Pettersson, David LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
A more modern bribery legislation? - A study of the develepment and application of the bribery legislation with a focus on the necessary prerequisite connection to the service
course
LAGM01 20142
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Mutor, Korruption, Mutbrott, Muta, Myndighetsutövning
language
Swedish
id
4914386
date added to LUP
2015-04-21 14:35:37
date last changed
2015-04-21 14:35:37
@misc{4914386,
  abstract     = {Sweden has long been spared from the corruption of higher extent, Transparency International's annual reports usually rank the country as one of those with the least corruption. The last decade, however, several major cases of corruption in authorities and the public sector have attracted the attention of the media and great interest among the public. Investigations published by BRÅ show that bribes in public authorities is likely to be more common than previously thought. The globalization that largely govern society presents many opportunities, but also a risk that cultures where corruption is more accepted rubs off on the Swedish authorities and businesses.

This development prompted a review of the Swedish bribery legislation, which led to amendments to the law in 2012. The aim of the review was to provide a more modern and transparent legislation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether the bribery legislation, which is now in force, de facto is modern and clear. The bribery legislation has previously been criticized for being too vague and general. The question is if the latest amendments have remedied the problems that critics observed?

One part of the bribery legislation that has been criticized for being too vague is the necessary prerequisite connection to the service. A benefit may not be unfair if given in a context outside of the service, such as in a friendship relationship. It is impossible to discover how the necessary prerequisite will be assessed in ambiguous situations only by reading the text of the law. One goal of this thesis is to examine how the necessary prerequisite is assessed in ambiguous situations, by examining applicable law.

My conclusion regarding the necessary prerequisite connection to the service is that some uncertainties regarding the interpretation have been clarified by recent rulings of The Supreme Court. However, the fact remains that the regulation is unclear and difficult to interpret as the legislature chose to retain the original design of the bribery legislation, despite having had a chance to absorb the criticism put forward and make changes to the design of the legislation.

The legislation is generally held to cover all employees in the community. According to the legislature, the general protective interests prompts a generally held law. My opinion is that the exercise of public authority is particularly worthy of protection since it is ultimately founded on the laws and regulations, while the private sector has a slightly lower protective value. Therefore, the bribery legislation should be amended so that it contains its own, more stringent, rules for employees performing governmental powers. A fragmentation could also make the legislation clearer and easier to apply, since practice and civil codes can be associated with the attributable sector in a more pedagogical way.},
  author       = {Pettersson, David},
  keyword      = {Mutor,Korruption,Mutbrott,Muta,Myndighetsutövning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {En modernare mutlagstiftning? - En studie av mutlagstiftningens utveckling och tillämpning med fokus på rekvisitet tjänstesamband},
  year         = {2015},
}