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EKMR:s extraterritoriella tillämplighet - En studie av svensk jurisdiktion över afghanska militärtolkars rättigheter

Södergren, Sarah LU (2014) LAGF03 20142
Faculty of Law
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Enligt artikel 1 i den Europeiska konventionen för de mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna (EKMR) måste de fördragsslutande staterna inom ramen för sin jurisdiktion garantera konventionens fri- och rättigheter. Denna skyldighet är främst territoriell, men i exceptionella fall medges vissa undantag. Uppsatsen behandlar dessa undantag såsom de utvecklats i Europadomstolens praxis fram till idag. Det är endast den extraterritoriella tillämpligheten av konventionen som utreds och inte det statsansvar som kan uppstå som en naturlig konsekvens av jurisdiktion.

Undantagen kan sammanfattas i två övergripande kategorier, nämligen: ”State agent authority and control”, där staten utövar kontroll över en eller flera individer... (More)
Enligt artikel 1 i den Europeiska konventionen för de mänskliga rättigheterna och de grundläggande friheterna (EKMR) måste de fördragsslutande staterna inom ramen för sin jurisdiktion garantera konventionens fri- och rättigheter. Denna skyldighet är främst territoriell, men i exceptionella fall medges vissa undantag. Uppsatsen behandlar dessa undantag såsom de utvecklats i Europadomstolens praxis fram till idag. Det är endast den extraterritoriella tillämpligheten av konventionen som utreds och inte det statsansvar som kan uppstå som en naturlig konsekvens av jurisdiktion.

Undantagen kan sammanfattas i två övergripande kategorier, nämligen: ”State agent authority and control”, där staten utövar kontroll över en eller flera individer utomlands, samt ”effective control over an area”, en modell som tar sikte på kontroll över ett avgränsat område utanför statens territorium. Grunden för extraterritoriell jurisdiktion är dels att konventionskränkningen utförs eller får konsekvenser utanför statens territorium och dels att staten har en tydlig koppling till offret för kränkningen genom en eller flera statsrepresentanter. Det är dessutom en nödvändig förutsättning att staten genom dessa har en särskild nivå av kontroll över offret för kränkningen. Rekvisiten för de två modellerna är högt ställda: total and exclusive control respektive effective control.

Europadomstolen har i praxis även identifierat extraterritoriella inslag i situationer där stater utvisar eller utlämnar utländska medborgare till stater där det föreligger en konkret risk för att deras konventionsrättigheter ska kränkas. De utgör specialfall genom att de utvidgar konventionens tillämplighet i tiden - ratione temporis - till att också omfatta kränkningar som ännu inte inträffat.

Just nu pågår sju mål om uppehållstillstånd för afghanska medborgare som varit anställda som tolkar av svenska Försvarsmakten under fredsbevarande insatser i Afghanistan. Migrationsdomstolen har gjort bedömningen att EKMR är extraterritoriellt tillämplig och fallen ska prövas igen av Migrationsverket. Jag argumenterar i uppsatsen för att de tillämpar ovanstående rättspraxis på ett sätt som inte är helt adekvat, utan riskerar att leda till en alltför omfattande skyldighet att tillämpa EKMR utanför våra gränser. (Less)
Abstract
According to Article 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) the contracting parties must secure the conventional rights within their jurisdiction. The obligation is primarily territorial but in exceptional cases it can be extended to apply extraterritorially. This paper will investigate the development of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (the ECtHR) until today, focusing on the extraterritorial application of the Convention rather than State Responsibility that often occurs as a consequence of jurisdiction.

The results of the case law can be divided into two different models, namely: ”State agent authority and control”, a model where the state is exercising control over a group or... (More)
According to Article 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) the contracting parties must secure the conventional rights within their jurisdiction. The obligation is primarily territorial but in exceptional cases it can be extended to apply extraterritorially. This paper will investigate the development of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (the ECtHR) until today, focusing on the extraterritorial application of the Convention rather than State Responsibility that often occurs as a consequence of jurisdiction.

The results of the case law can be divided into two different models, namely: ”State agent authority and control”, a model where the state is exercising control over a group or an individual abroad, and ”effective control over an area”, where the object of control is a limited area on foreign territory. The prerequisites of extraterritorial application is that the violation of the conventional rights takes place or has consequences on the territory of another state, as well as a close connection between the state in question and the victim of the violation. The connection can be established by inter alia state agents. A certain level of control over the victim is required, and when it comes to the above mentioned models the standards are very high: total and exclusive control and effective control.

In its case law, the ECtHR have found that there are extraterritorial elements in cases of expulsion or extradition where there is a real risk of conventional breaches. The temporal jurisdiction of the convention – its ratione temporis – is hereby extended to violations that hasn´t occurred yet, which is an exception as far as the ECHR is concerned.

Currently, there are seven pending cases regarding applications for asylum by Afghan citizens formerly employed as interpreters by the Swedish Armed Forces during their peace-keeping operation in Afghanistan. The Swedish Migration Court has considered

the ECHR extraterritorially applicable and the cases will be tried again by the Swedish Migration board. In this paper, I argue that the Courts application of the ECtHR´s case law is inapt since it creates state obligations far too extensive, when it comes to extraterritorial jurisdiction. (Less)
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author
Södergren, Sarah LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20142
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Folkrätt, Public international law
language
Swedish
id
4917870
date added to LUP
2015-01-28 16:48:37
date last changed
2015-01-28 16:48:37
@misc{4917870,
  abstract     = {According to Article 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR) the contracting parties must secure the conventional rights within their jurisdiction. The obligation is primarily territorial but in exceptional cases it can be extended to apply extraterritorially. This paper will investigate the development of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (the ECtHR) until today, focusing on the extraterritorial application of the Convention rather than State Responsibility that often occurs as a consequence of jurisdiction. 

The results of the case law can be divided into two different models, namely: ”State agent authority and control”, a model where the state is exercising control over a group or an individual abroad, and ”effective control over an area”, where the object of control is a limited area on foreign territory. The prerequisites of extraterritorial application is that the violation of the conventional rights takes place or has consequences on the territory of another state, as well as a close connection between the state in question and the victim of the violation. The connection can be established by inter alia state agents. A certain level of control over the victim is required, and when it comes to the above mentioned models the standards are very high: total and exclusive control and effective control. 

In its case law, the ECtHR have found that there are extraterritorial elements in cases of expulsion or extradition where there is a real risk of conventional breaches. The temporal jurisdiction of the convention – its ratione temporis – is hereby extended to violations that hasn´t occurred yet, which is an exception as far as the ECHR is concerned. 

Currently, there are seven pending cases regarding applications for asylum by Afghan citizens formerly employed as interpreters by the Swedish Armed Forces during their peace-keeping operation in Afghanistan. The Swedish Migration Court has considered 

the ECHR extraterritorially applicable and the cases will be tried again by the Swedish Migration board. In this paper, I argue that the Courts application of the ECtHR´s case law is inapt since it creates state obligations far too extensive, when it comes to extraterritorial jurisdiction.},
  author       = {Södergren, Sarah},
  keyword      = {Folkrätt,Public international law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {EKMR:s extraterritoriella tillämplighet - En studie av svensk jurisdiktion över afghanska militärtolkars rättigheter},
  year         = {2014},
}