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Kränkande särbehandling på arbetsplatsen - Arbetstagarens skydd mot mobbning och trakasserier

Bergholtz, Victoria LU (2014) JURM02 20142
Department of Law
Abstract
Victimization is a concept that mainly contains adult bullying, harassment and sexual harassment. Victimization through bullying is regulated in Swedish law primarily through the work environment legislation, since it is considered to be an organizational issue. The work environment shall according to the Swedish Work Environment Act be satisfactory and the employer shall take all the precautions necessary to prevent the employee from being exposed to health hazards. There is also an ordinance that specifically regulates victimization in the workplace. The Swedish Work Environment Authority ensures compliance with the work environment legislation. The work environment legislation does not contain any rules on compensation, however an... (More)
Victimization is a concept that mainly contains adult bullying, harassment and sexual harassment. Victimization through bullying is regulated in Swedish law primarily through the work environment legislation, since it is considered to be an organizational issue. The work environment shall according to the Swedish Work Environment Act be satisfactory and the employer shall take all the precautions necessary to prevent the employee from being exposed to health hazards. There is also an ordinance that specifically regulates victimization in the workplace. The Swedish Work Environment Authority ensures compliance with the work environment legislation. The work environment legislation does not contain any rules on compensation, however an employee who becomes ill as a result of victimization can receive sickness benefits under the social security legislation. An employer who fails to take sufficient measures to prevent and address victimization may be convicted of a work environment offence, however the legal position is not entirely clear. In February 2014 a Swedish District Court sentenced two bosses for work environment offence by involuntary manslaughter, since they had not taken sufficient measures to investigate alleged bullying in the workplace. The judgment has been appealed.

If the victimization is associated with one of the grounds of discrimination sex, transgender identity or expression, ethnicity, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation or age, or is of a sexual nature, the Swedish Discrimination Act may apply. According to the Discrimination Act an employer may not subject an employee to harassment or sexual harassment and he or she has an obligation to investigate and take action when having the knowledge that an employee feels subjected to harassment or sexual harassment. An employer who violates this provision may be sentenced to pay compensation for discrimination.

The consequence for an employee who harasses or bullies another employee may be that he or she is terminated, dismissed or reassigned. The Swedish Criminal Code also contains some provisions that may apply to some serious forms of victimization.

The protection of an employee who is subjected to victimization depends largely on the expression of the victimization. An employee who is subjected to harassment or sexual harassment has a considerably stronger protection than an employee who is subjected to bullying, since the Discrimination Act is civil law, while the Work Environment Act is public law. This means that an employee who believes that an employer violates the Work Environment Act lacks opportunities to initiate proceedings against the employer. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Kränkande särbehandling är ett begrepp som innefattar bland annat vuxenmobbning, trakasserier och sexuella trakasserier. Kränkande särbehandling genom mobbning regleras i svensk rätt främst genom arbetsmiljörätten. Arbetsmiljön ska enligt arbetsmiljölagen vara tillfredsställande och arbetsgivaren ska vidta alla åtgärder som behövs för att förebygga att arbetstagare drabbas av ohälsa. Det finns även en föreskrift som specifikt reglerar kränkande särbehandling på arbetsplatsen. Arbetsmiljöverket utövar tillsyn över att arbetsmiljölagstiftningen följs. Arbetsmiljörätten innehåller inga regler om ersättning, men en arbetstagare som blir sjuk till följd av kränkande särbehandling kan få sjukersättning enligt socialförsäkringsrätten. En... (More)
Kränkande särbehandling är ett begrepp som innefattar bland annat vuxenmobbning, trakasserier och sexuella trakasserier. Kränkande särbehandling genom mobbning regleras i svensk rätt främst genom arbetsmiljörätten. Arbetsmiljön ska enligt arbetsmiljölagen vara tillfredsställande och arbetsgivaren ska vidta alla åtgärder som behövs för att förebygga att arbetstagare drabbas av ohälsa. Det finns även en föreskrift som specifikt reglerar kränkande särbehandling på arbetsplatsen. Arbetsmiljöverket utövar tillsyn över att arbetsmiljölagstiftningen följs. Arbetsmiljörätten innehåller inga regler om ersättning, men en arbetstagare som blir sjuk till följd av kränkande särbehandling kan få sjukersättning enligt socialförsäkringsrätten. En arbetsgivare som inte vidtar tillräckliga åtgärder för att förebygga och åtgärda kränkande särbehandling kan eventuellt dömas för arbetsmiljöbrott, men rättsläget är osäkert. Östersunds tingsrätt dömde i februari 2014 två chefer för arbetsmiljöbrott genom vållande till annans död, då de inte vidtagit tillräckliga åtgärder för att utreda påstådd mobbning på arbetsplatsen. Domen är överklagad till hovrätten.

Om den kränkande särbehandlingen har samband med någon av diskrimineringsgrunderna kön, könsöverskridande identitet eller uttryck, etnisk tillhörighet, religion eller annan trosuppfattning, funktionshinder, sexuell läggning eller ålder eller är av sexuell natur kan diskrimineringslagen bli tillämplig. Enligt diskrimineringslagen får en arbetsgivare inte utsätta en arbetstagare för trakasserier eller sexuella trakasserier och han eller hon har en skyldighet att utreda och vidta åtgärder vid kännedom om att en arbetstagare känner sig utsatt. En arbetsgivare som bryter mot detta kan dömas till att betala diskrimineringsersättning.

Följden för den arbetstagare som trakasserar eller mobbar någon annan kan bli att han eller hon sägs upp, avskedas eller omplaceras. Brottsbalken innehåller även vissa bestämmelser som kan bli tillämpliga vid grova former av kränkande särbehandling.

Skyddet för en arbetstagare som utsätts för kränkande särbehandling beror till stor del på hur den kränkande särbehandlingen yttrat sig. Den arbetstagare som utsätts för trakasserier eller sexuella trakasserier har ett betydligt starkare skydd än den som utsätts för mobbning, då diskrimineringslagen är en civilrättslig lag medan arbetsmiljölagen är en offentligrättslig lag. Detta innebär att en arbetstagare som anser att arbetsgivaren bryter mot arbetsmiljölagen saknar möjligheter driva process mot sin arbetsgivare. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Bergholtz, Victoria LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Victimization in the workplace - Protection of employees against bullying and harassment
course
JURM02 20142
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
arbetsrätt, labour law, kränkande särbehandling, mobbning, trakasserier, sexuella trakasserier
language
Swedish
id
4917998
date added to LUP
2015-02-03 10:44:37
date last changed
2015-02-03 10:44:37
@misc{4917998,
  abstract     = {Victimization is a concept that mainly contains adult bullying, harassment and sexual harassment. Victimization through bullying is regulated in Swedish law primarily through the work environment legislation, since it is considered to be an organizational issue. The work environment shall according to the Swedish Work Environment Act be satisfactory and the employer shall take all the precautions necessary to prevent the employee from being exposed to health hazards. There is also an ordinance that specifically regulates victimization in the workplace. The Swedish Work Environment Authority ensures compliance with the work environment legislation. The work environment legislation does not contain any rules on compensation, however an employee who becomes ill as a result of victimization can receive sickness benefits under the social security legislation. An employer who fails to take sufficient measures to prevent and address victimization may be convicted of a work environment offence, however the legal position is not entirely clear. In February 2014 a Swedish District Court sentenced two bosses for work environment offence by involuntary manslaughter, since they had not taken sufficient measures to investigate alleged bullying in the workplace. The judgment has been appealed. 

If the victimization is associated with one of the grounds of discrimination sex, transgender identity or expression, ethnicity, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation or age, or is of a sexual nature, the Swedish Discrimination Act may apply. According to the Discrimination Act an employer may not subject an employee to harassment or sexual harassment and he or she has an obligation to investigate and take action when having the knowledge that an employee feels subjected to harassment or sexual harassment. An employer who violates this provision may be sentenced to pay compensation for discrimination. 

The consequence for an employee who harasses or bullies another employee may be that he or she is terminated, dismissed or reassigned. The Swedish Criminal Code also contains some provisions that may apply to some serious forms of victimization.

The protection of an employee who is subjected to victimization depends largely on the expression of the victimization. An employee who is subjected to harassment or sexual harassment has a considerably stronger protection than an employee who is subjected to bullying, since the Discrimination Act is civil law, while the Work Environment Act is public law. This means that an employee who believes that an employer violates the Work Environment Act lacks opportunities to initiate proceedings against the employer.},
  author       = {Bergholtz, Victoria},
  keyword      = {arbetsrätt,labour law,kränkande särbehandling,mobbning,trakasserier,sexuella trakasserier},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Kränkande särbehandling på arbetsplatsen - Arbetstagarens skydd mot mobbning och trakasserier},
  year         = {2014},
}