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Gemensam vårdnad - en förlegad presumtion? - En rättshistorisk redogörelse av vårdnadsutvecklingen med fokus på presumtionen för gemensam vårdnad

Svensson, Fredrika LU (2015) LAGF03 20151
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I familjerätten finns två former av vårdnad, ensam vårdnad och gemensam vårdnad. Den sistnämnda vårdnadsformen utgör utgångspunkten vid bedömningen av vilken vårdnadsform som är lämpligast.
En utgångspunkt som har varit så stark att den har gett upphov till en presumtion för gemensam vårdnad.

Uppsatsen undersöker den gemensamma vårdnadens rättsutveckling med utgångspunkt i vårdnadsreformerna 1998 och 2006 ur lagstiftarens och rättstillämparens ögon. Ändringen 1998 gav domstolarna möjligheten att döma till gemensam vårdnad mot en förälders vilja. Syftet var att öka den gemensamma vårdnaden med avsikten att tillgodose barnets bästa. Sverige ratificerade 1990 FN:s barnkonvention som stadgar att barnets bästa är avgörande vid alla beslut... (More)
I familjerätten finns två former av vårdnad, ensam vårdnad och gemensam vårdnad. Den sistnämnda vårdnadsformen utgör utgångspunkten vid bedömningen av vilken vårdnadsform som är lämpligast.
En utgångspunkt som har varit så stark att den har gett upphov till en presumtion för gemensam vårdnad.

Uppsatsen undersöker den gemensamma vårdnadens rättsutveckling med utgångspunkt i vårdnadsreformerna 1998 och 2006 ur lagstiftarens och rättstillämparens ögon. Ändringen 1998 gav domstolarna möjligheten att döma till gemensam vårdnad mot en förälders vilja. Syftet var att öka den gemensamma vårdnaden med avsikten att tillgodose barnets bästa. Sverige ratificerade 1990 FN:s barnkonvention som stadgar att barnets bästa är avgörande vid alla beslut rörande barnet. Vad som utgör barnet bästa är ej klart definierat, däremot tolkas barnets bästa med hänsyn till barnets behov av en nära och god kontakt med båda föräldrarna.

Lagändringen 1998 medförde att domstolarna genom praxis skapade en presumtion för gemensam vårdnad. Lagstiftarens svar på presumtionen syns i reformen 2006. I prop. 2005/06:99 tydliggörs det i utredningen att det inte bör föreligga en presumtion varken för eller emot gemensam vårdnad.
För att utreda ifall presumtionen verkligen är förlegad efter ändringen 2006 tar uppsatsen hjälp av tre familjerättsliga författare. Två av författarna beskriver gemensam vårdnad som en huvudregel. Gemensam vårdnad är än idag utgångspunkten för bedömningen om lämplig vårdnadsform och anses fortfarande normalt utgöra barnets bästa. Enligt en författare kan man argumentera ifall man skall kalla denna utgångspunkt för huvudregel eller presumtion. Förutsättningarna för en presumtion idag är samma som vid 1998. Anledningen till att man idag säger huvudregel istället för presumtion är enligt mig en skillnad i styrka, idag krävs inte lika allvarliga omständigheter för att gemensam vårdnad skall anses olämpligt. Gemensam vårdnad är inte längre en slentrian. (Less)
Abstract
Within the area of family law there exists two forms of legal child custody, sole custody and joint custody. The last form is the starting point in court when deciding upon which form of custody constitutes the most suitable one. The strength of the previously mentioned starting point are of such degree that a presumption for joint custody took shape.

The essay examines how the development of child custody in the perspective of the child custody reforms in 1998 and 2006. The reform in 1998 enabled the courts to decide upon joint custody against a parent’s will. With the purpose of increasing the amount of joint custodies with the intention to realize the best interest of the child. Sweden ratified the United Nations convention on Rights... (More)
Within the area of family law there exists two forms of legal child custody, sole custody and joint custody. The last form is the starting point in court when deciding upon which form of custody constitutes the most suitable one. The strength of the previously mentioned starting point are of such degree that a presumption for joint custody took shape.

The essay examines how the development of child custody in the perspective of the child custody reforms in 1998 and 2006. The reform in 1998 enabled the courts to decide upon joint custody against a parent’s will. With the purpose of increasing the amount of joint custodies with the intention to realize the best interest of the child. Sweden ratified the United Nations convention on Rights of the Child in 1990. The convention statute that the interest of the child is decisive in all legal matters concerning the child. What the interest of the child is constituted of is not definitely defined, although it is often interpreted to contain the importance of a close and good connection between the child and both of the child’s parents.
The reform in 1998 resulted in a presumption for joint custody created by the practice of the courts. The legislator’s answer to the presumption can be seen in the later reform in 2006. In the prop. 2005/06:99, the legislator makes it clear that no presumption, either for or against joint custody should exist.

To investigate whether the presumption truly died out with the reform in 2006, the essay takes aid from three writers of family law doctrine. Two of the writes describe joint custody as a main rule. Joint custody is still as of today the starting point for determining the most suitable form of custody and it is still considered the best form of custody to cater to the interest of the child. According to one writer it is debatable whether this starting point should be called a main rule or a presumption. The prerequisites for a presumption today and those prerequisites of 1998 are the same. The reason the starting point today is referred to as a main rule instead of a presumption is in my opinion the difference in strength. It is no longer necessary for there to be sever circumstances in a child custody case to enable the court to decide for a sole custody. Joint custody is no longer an empty routine. (Less)
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author
Svensson, Fredrika LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20151
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
familjerätt, gemensam vårdnad, presumtion, family law
language
Swedish
id
5425930
date added to LUP
2015-07-06 10:34:38
date last changed
2015-07-06 10:34:38
@misc{5425930,
  abstract     = {Within the area of family law there exists two forms of legal child custody, sole custody and joint custody. The last form is the starting point in court when deciding upon which form of custody constitutes the most suitable one. The strength of the previously mentioned starting point are of such degree that a presumption for joint custody took shape.

The essay examines how the development of child custody in the perspective of the child custody reforms in 1998 and 2006. The reform in 1998 enabled the courts to decide upon joint custody against a parent’s will. With the purpose of increasing the amount of joint custodies with the intention to realize the best interest of the child. Sweden ratified the United Nations convention on Rights of the Child in 1990. The convention statute that the interest of the child is decisive in all legal matters concerning the child. What the interest of the child is constituted of is not definitely defined, although it is often interpreted to contain the importance of a close and good connection between the child and both of the child’s parents. 
The reform in 1998 resulted in a presumption for joint custody created by the practice of the courts. The legislator’s answer to the presumption can be seen in the later reform in 2006. In the prop. 2005/06:99, the legislator makes it clear that no presumption, either for or against joint custody should exist. 

To investigate whether the presumption truly died out with the reform in 2006, the essay takes aid from three writers of family law doctrine. Two of the writes describe joint custody as a main rule. Joint custody is still as of today the starting point for determining the most suitable form of custody and it is still considered the best form of custody to cater to the interest of the child. According to one writer it is debatable whether this starting point should be called a main rule or a presumption. The prerequisites for a presumption today and those prerequisites of 1998 are the same. The reason the starting point today is referred to as a main rule instead of a presumption is in my opinion the difference in strength. It is no longer necessary for there to be sever circumstances in a child custody case to enable the court to decide for a sole custody. Joint custody is no longer an empty routine.},
  author       = {Svensson, Fredrika},
  keyword      = {familjerätt,gemensam vårdnad,presumtion,family law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Gemensam vårdnad - en förlegad presumtion? - En rättshistorisk redogörelse av vårdnadsutvecklingen med fokus på presumtionen för gemensam vårdnad},
  year         = {2015},
}