Advanced

Surrogatmoderskap - En kritisk analys rörande en eventuell legalisering med särskild inriktning på surrogatmoderns perspektiv

Henningsson, Malin LU (2015) LAGF03 20151
Faculty of Law
Department of Law
Abstract
Ever since the middle of the 1980s when artificial insemination was given attention surrogacy have been much-disputed in Sweden, but so far surrogacy is not legal in the country. However in June 2015 a government investigation will be published which will convey whether or not surrogacy should be legalised and if so how the arrangement should be regulated.

Statens medicinsk-etiska råd published a report in 2013 which states that altruistic surrogacy should be legalised since this is considered ethically acceptable. Altruistic surrogacy is in general regarded as more acceptable than commercial surrogacy since it is supposed to be voluntary and without profit motive. However there is also some criticism addressed to this form. Among... (More)
Ever since the middle of the 1980s when artificial insemination was given attention surrogacy have been much-disputed in Sweden, but so far surrogacy is not legal in the country. However in June 2015 a government investigation will be published which will convey whether or not surrogacy should be legalised and if so how the arrangement should be regulated.

Statens medicinsk-etiska råd published a report in 2013 which states that altruistic surrogacy should be legalised since this is considered ethically acceptable. Altruistic surrogacy is in general regarded as more acceptable than commercial surrogacy since it is supposed to be voluntary and without profit motive. However there is also some criticism addressed to this form. Among others some argue that dispite altruistic surrogacy being regulated former examples display a stretch towards commercial surrogacy through payment under the counter. It is also considered difficult for surrogate mothers to express an informed consent since the long-term consequences of the arrangement is largely unknown.

In both the UK and in USA surrogacy have been legalised for a long time in varying forms. In the UK, where altruistic surrogacy is legal, the woman who carries the child always become its legal mother at birth, no matter if she is the genetic mother or not. This guarantees a certain security if conflicts should arise. In USA the regulation is greatly varied in the different states and many surrogacy cases have divers outcome, ranging from the court taking the surrogate mothers wish into consideration to focusing on a binding surrogate contract and genetic connection.

The reasoning around surrogacy and its legalisation often focus on whether the arrangement violates the principle of human dignity, if it might lead to exploitation and what is in the best interest of the child. Since studies regarding the long-term psychological consequences for the surrogate mother is few this aspect is frequently kept in the dark despite many cases where the surrogate mother has changed her mind and later on reported depressive mood. This is something many argues should be taken seriously when discussing a legalisation of surrogacy.

Whether or not surrogacy is considered acceptable it is not possible to obscure the complex of problems by making the arrangement illegal in the country since infertile couples nevertheless will turn abroad, something that is not sustainable. Instead it might be better to adopt a thorough regulation which includes an aptitude test of the surrogate mother, which takes all parties interest into account and which clearly states how the right of withdrawal is handled. It is furthermore essential to undertake more scientific surveys regarding the long-term effects of surrogacy since several women previously have made a connection with the child and have experienced depression after giving birth. (Less)
Abstract (Swedish)
Surrogatmoderskap har sedan mitten av 1980-talet varit omdiskuterat i Sverige i och med att frågan om assisterad befruktning då uppmärksammades, men än så länge är surrogatmoderskap inte tillåtet i landet. I juni 2015 ska det dock publiceras en statlig utredning vilken ska uttala huruvida en legalisering av arrangemanget borde ske och hur detta i så fall ska regleras.

Statens medicinsk-etiska råd kom med en rapport 2013 vilken framhåller att surrogatmoderskap i altruistisk form bör legaliseras eftersom detta anses etiskt godtagbart. Det altruistiska surrogatmoderskapet bedöms generellt mer acceptabelt än kommersiellt då det ska vara frivilligt och utan vinstmotiv. Dock riktas en del kritik även mot denna form. Bl.a. menar vissa att även... (More)
Surrogatmoderskap har sedan mitten av 1980-talet varit omdiskuterat i Sverige i och med att frågan om assisterad befruktning då uppmärksammades, men än så länge är surrogatmoderskap inte tillåtet i landet. I juni 2015 ska det dock publiceras en statlig utredning vilken ska uttala huruvida en legalisering av arrangemanget borde ske och hur detta i så fall ska regleras.

Statens medicinsk-etiska råd kom med en rapport 2013 vilken framhåller att surrogatmoderskap i altruistisk form bör legaliseras eftersom detta anses etiskt godtagbart. Det altruistiska surrogatmoderskapet bedöms generellt mer acceptabelt än kommersiellt då det ska vara frivilligt och utan vinstmotiv. Dock riktas en del kritik även mot denna form. Bl.a. menar vissa att även om altruistiskt surrogatmoderskap legaliseras visar många tidigare exempel på att en glidning mot det kommersiella ändå sker genom betalning ”under bordet”. Det anses även svårt för surrogatmödrar att kunna ge ett informerat samtycke då de långvariga konsekvenserna av arrangemanget till stor del är okända.

I både Storbritannien och USA har surrogatmoderskap länge varit legaliserat, dock på olika sätt i respektive land. I Storbritannien, som har altruistiskt surrogatmoderskap, blir den kvinna som bär barnet alltid dess legala moder vid födseln, oavsett om hon är dess genetiska moder eller inte. Detta garanterar en viss säkerhet i fall konflikter skulle uppstå. I USA är reglering starkt varierande i de olika delstaterna och olika surrogatfall ger olika utfall, allt från att domstolen tar hänsyn till surrogatmoderns vilja till att fokus ligger på ett bindande surrogatkontrakt och genetisk förbindelse.

Resonemangen kring surrogatmoderskap och dess legalisering fokuserar ofta på huruvida arrangemanget strider mot människovärdesprincipen, om det kan leda till exploatering och vad som är barnets bästa. Eftersom det inte finns många studier om de långvariga psykologiska konsekvenserna för surrogatmodern hamnar detta ofta i skymundan trots att det finns många fall där surrogatmodern ångrat sig och senare rapporterat depressiv sinnesstämning. Detta är något som många menar bör tas på allvar när man diskuterar en legalisering av surrogatmoderskap.

Oavsett om surrogatmoderskap anses godtagbart eller inte går det inte att undkomma problematiken genom att göra arrangemanget illegalt i landet då par ändå kommer vända sig utomlands, något som inte är hållbart i längden. Istället är det bättre med en noggrann reglering som innefattar en lämplighetsprövning av surrogatmodern, som tar hänsyn till alla parters intressen och som tydligt stadgar hur ångerrätten ska hanteras. Dessutom är det väsentligt att fler vetenskapliga studier rörande de långvariga effekterna av surrogatmoderskap företas eftersom det uppenbarligen förekommer ett flertal kvinnor vilka knutit an till barnet och efter födseln upplevt djup nedstämdhet. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Henningsson, Malin LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20151
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
Familjerätt, surrogatmoderskap, surrogatmödraskap, surrogate motherhood, surrogacy, assisterad befruktning
language
Swedish
id
5431118
date added to LUP
2015-07-03 15:29:49
date last changed
2015-07-03 15:29:49
@misc{5431118,
  abstract     = {Ever since the middle of the 1980s when artificial insemination was given attention surrogacy have been much-disputed in Sweden, but so far surrogacy is not legal in the country. However in June 2015 a government investigation will be published which will convey whether or not surrogacy should be legalised and if so how the arrangement should be regulated.

Statens medicinsk-etiska råd published a report in 2013 which states that altruistic surrogacy should be legalised since this is considered ethically acceptable. Altruistic surrogacy is in general regarded as more acceptable than commercial surrogacy since it is supposed to be voluntary and without profit motive. However there is also some criticism addressed to this form. Among others some argue that dispite altruistic surrogacy being regulated former examples display a stretch towards commercial surrogacy through payment under the counter. It is also considered difficult for surrogate mothers to express an informed consent since the long-term consequences of the arrangement is largely unknown.

In both the UK and in USA surrogacy have been legalised for a long time in varying forms. In the UK, where altruistic surrogacy is legal, the woman who carries the child always become its legal mother at birth, no matter if she is the genetic mother or not. This guarantees a certain security if conflicts should arise. In USA the regulation is greatly varied in the different states and many surrogacy cases have divers outcome, ranging from the court taking the surrogate mothers wish into consideration to focusing on a binding surrogate contract and genetic connection.

The reasoning around surrogacy and its legalisation often focus on whether the arrangement violates the principle of human dignity, if it might lead to exploitation and what is in the best interest of the child. Since studies regarding the long-term psychological consequences for the surrogate mother is few this aspect is frequently kept in the dark despite many cases where the surrogate mother has changed her mind and later on reported depressive mood. This is something many argues should be taken seriously when discussing a legalisation of surrogacy.

Whether or not surrogacy is considered acceptable it is not possible to obscure the complex of problems by making the arrangement illegal in the country since infertile couples nevertheless will turn abroad, something that is not sustainable. Instead it might be better to adopt a thorough regulation which includes an aptitude test of the surrogate mother, which takes all parties interest into account and which clearly states how the right of withdrawal is handled. It is furthermore essential to undertake more scientific surveys regarding the long-term effects of surrogacy since several women previously have made a connection with the child and have experienced depression after giving birth.},
  author       = {Henningsson, Malin},
  keyword      = {Familjerätt,surrogatmoderskap,surrogatmödraskap,surrogate motherhood,surrogacy,assisterad befruktning},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Surrogatmoderskap - En kritisk analys rörande en eventuell legalisering med särskild inriktning på surrogatmoderns perspektiv},
  year         = {2015},
}