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Barn som bevittnar våld - En analys av brottsofferbegreppet och barnkonventionen

Ringborg, Christine LU (2015) LAGF03 20151
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Syftet med uppsatsen är att genom en rättsdogmatisk metod och ett kritiskt perspektiv granska huruvida innehållet i termen barnets bästa förhåller sig till brottsofferbegreppet i svensk rätt. Uppsatsen behandlar frågan om en inkorporering av barnkonventionen är motiverad med hänsyn till barnets rätt att komma till tals i situationer där barn bevittnar våld mot närstående. Frågan om barn som bevittnar våld ska ses som straffrättsligt brottsoffer och inneha ställning som målsägande har blivit omdebatterad sedan Högsta domstolen i NJA 2005 s. 712 fastslog att barn i denna situation inte ses som brottsoffer i svensk straffrätt.
För barn som bevittnar våld innebär utgången i målet att de går miste om straffrättsliga, processrättsliga och... (More)
Syftet med uppsatsen är att genom en rättsdogmatisk metod och ett kritiskt perspektiv granska huruvida innehållet i termen barnets bästa förhåller sig till brottsofferbegreppet i svensk rätt. Uppsatsen behandlar frågan om en inkorporering av barnkonventionen är motiverad med hänsyn till barnets rätt att komma till tals i situationer där barn bevittnar våld mot närstående. Frågan om barn som bevittnar våld ska ses som straffrättsligt brottsoffer och inneha ställning som målsägande har blivit omdebatterad sedan Högsta domstolen i NJA 2005 s. 712 fastslog att barn i denna situation inte ses som brottsoffer i svensk straffrätt.
För barn som bevittnar våld innebär utgången i målet att de går miste om straffrättsliga, processrättsliga och skadeståndsrättsliga rättigheter. Domen har blivit kritiserad av bland annat flertalet barnrättsorganisationer samt straffrättsdocenten Claes Lernestedt som anför att domen kan strida mot FN:s konvention om barnets rättigheter.
Sverige har vid upprepade tillfällen fått kritik av FN:s barnrättskommitté med anledning av att barnkonventionen inte är svensk lag. Konventionen ratificerades av Sverige år 1990, men någon inkorporering skedde inte. Beslutet motiverades med att någon inkorporering ej var nödvändig, på grund av att den svenska lagstiftningen överlag överensstämmer med barnkonventionen.
I februari år 2015 beslutade emellertid regeringen att barnkonventionen ska bli svensk lag. Det intressanta i sammanhanget är huruvida svensk lagstiftning och rättstillämpning är förenlig med barnkonventionen. Blir konventionen svensk lag är domstolar och myndigheter bundna av konventionens rättigheter som nationell rätt.
För barn som bevittnar våld finns flera fördelar med att barnkonventionen blir en del av svensk lagstiftning. Barnets rättsliga ställning skulle stärkas, och en förändring av lagstiftningen på området skulle enligt Lernestedt vara att vänta. Får barnet ställning som målsägande får det möjlighet att komma till tals i rättegången, eftersom brottet då anses begånget direkt mot barnen.
Mot bakgrund av detta kommer jag i min slutsats fram till att en inkorporering av barnkonventionen är motiverad med hänsyn till barnets rätt att komma till tals i situationer där barnet bevittnar våld. (Less)
Abstract
The purpose of the essay is through a legal dogmatic method and a critically perspective examine whether the content of the term child’s best interests relate to the victim of crime concept in Swedish applicable law. The essay handle the question whether an incorporation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is motivated given the child’s right to be heard in situations when the child witness violence against a family member. The question concerning a child who witness violence against a family member should be viewed as a criminal victim and get the status of an injured party have become controversial after The Supreme Court in NJA 2005 s. 712 concluded that a child is not a victim of crime in Swedish law in this kind of... (More)
The purpose of the essay is through a legal dogmatic method and a critically perspective examine whether the content of the term child’s best interests relate to the victim of crime concept in Swedish applicable law. The essay handle the question whether an incorporation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is motivated given the child’s right to be heard in situations when the child witness violence against a family member. The question concerning a child who witness violence against a family member should be viewed as a criminal victim and get the status of an injured party have become controversial after The Supreme Court in NJA 2005 s. 712 concluded that a child is not a victim of crime in Swedish law in this kind of situation.
For children who witness violence against a family member, the outcome of the case means that they miss out on rights in the area of criminal law, procedural code and law of damages. The judgement have been criticized by organizations working for children’s rights and by Claes Lernestedt, associate professor in criminal law, who’s opinion is that the judgement may go against the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child.
Sweden has on several occasions been criticized by the Committee on the Rights of the Child due to the fact that the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child is not part of Swedish law. The convention was ratified by Sweden in 1990, but was not incorporated. The decision not to incorporate the convention was motivated by the fact that Swedish legislation overall agree with the rights in the convention.
In February 2015 the Swedish government decided that the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child shall become part of the Swedish legislation in Sweden. The interesting part of this is whether Swedish legislation and application of law is compatible with the convention. If the convention becomes a part of established law in Sweden, the courts and authorities will be bound by the obligations in the convention.
For children who witness violence against a family member there are several benefits with the convention becomes a part of Swedish law. The legal position of the child would be stronger, and an evolution in the legislation area of the child’s best interest would, according to Lernestedt be expected. If the child get the status as injured person, it will have the opportunity to be heard in the trial, because of the fact that the crime will be considered as committed directly against the child.
In the light of this, I come to the conclusion in my analysis that an incorporation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is motivated given the child’s right to be heard in situations when the child witness violence against a family member. (Less)
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author
Ringborg, Christine LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20151
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
straffrätt, processrätt, socialrätt, barnkonventionen
language
Swedish
id
5431249
date added to LUP
2015-07-06 10:14:15
date last changed
2015-07-06 10:14:15
@misc{5431249,
  abstract     = {The purpose of the essay is through a legal dogmatic method and a critically perspective examine whether the content of the term child’s best interests relate to the victim of crime concept in Swedish applicable law. The essay handle the question whether an incorporation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is motivated given the child’s right to be heard in situations when the child witness violence against a family member. The question concerning a child who witness violence against a family member should be viewed as a criminal victim and get the status of an injured party have become controversial after The Supreme Court in NJA 2005 s. 712 concluded that a child is not a victim of crime in Swedish law in this kind of situation.
 For children who witness violence against a family member, the outcome of the case means that they miss out on rights in the area of criminal law, procedural code and law of damages. The judgement have been criticized by organizations working for children’s rights and by Claes Lernestedt, associate professor in criminal law, who’s opinion is that the judgement may go against the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child. 
 Sweden has on several occasions been criticized by the Committee on the Rights of the Child due to the fact that the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child is not part of Swedish law. The convention was ratified by Sweden in 1990, but was not incorporated. The decision not to incorporate the convention was motivated by the fact that Swedish legislation overall agree with the rights in the convention. 
 In February 2015 the Swedish government decided that the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child shall become part of the Swedish legislation in Sweden. The interesting part of this is whether Swedish legislation and application of law is compatible with the convention. If the convention becomes a part of established law in Sweden, the courts and authorities will be bound by the obligations in the convention.
 For children who witness violence against a family member there are several benefits with the convention becomes a part of Swedish law. The legal position of the child would be stronger, and an evolution in the legislation area of the child’s best interest would, according to Lernestedt be expected. If the child get the status as injured person, it will have the opportunity to be heard in the trial, because of the fact that the crime will be considered as committed directly against the child.
 In the light of this, I come to the conclusion in my analysis that an incorporation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is motivated given the child’s right to be heard in situations when the child witness violence against a family member.},
  author       = {Ringborg, Christine},
  keyword      = {straffrätt,processrätt,socialrätt,barnkonventionen},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Barn som bevittnar våld - En analys av brottsofferbegreppet och barnkonventionen},
  year         = {2015},
}