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Straffbar medhjälp? - En kritisk undersökning av medhjälpsansvarets nedre gräns

Cloustierna, Daniel LU (2015) LAGF03 20151
Department of Law
Faculty of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
I svensk rätt kan även den som enbart i mindre grad deltar i ett brott dömas till ansvar. Denne döms då som medhjälpare — inte gärningsman. Var den nedre gränsen går för medhjälpsansvaret tycks ha hamnat i skymundan för den debatt som på senare tid rört den övre ansvarsgränsen, med andra ord gränsen mellan vem som är att anse som medhjälpare respektive gärningsman. Syftet med denna uppsats är att söka utröna medhjälpsansvarets nedre gräns ur ett kritiskt perspektiv. Detta innebär att uppsatsen gör anspråk på att söka utreda huruvida den nedre gränsen, såsom den kommer till uttryck i medverkansbestämmelsen 23:4 § BrB, är förenlig med legalitetsprincipen, i fråga om de krav principen uppställer på strafföreskrifter avseende klarhet och... (More)
I svensk rätt kan även den som enbart i mindre grad deltar i ett brott dömas till ansvar. Denne döms då som medhjälpare — inte gärningsman. Var den nedre gränsen går för medhjälpsansvaret tycks ha hamnat i skymundan för den debatt som på senare tid rört den övre ansvarsgränsen, med andra ord gränsen mellan vem som är att anse som medhjälpare respektive gärningsman. Syftet med denna uppsats är att söka utröna medhjälpsansvarets nedre gräns ur ett kritiskt perspektiv. Detta innebär att uppsatsen gör anspråk på att söka utreda huruvida den nedre gränsen, såsom den kommer till uttryck i medverkansbestämmelsen 23:4 § BrB, är förenlig med legalitetsprincipen, i fråga om de krav principen uppställer på strafföreskrifter avseende klarhet och tydlighet.

Beträffande den nedre ansvarsgränsen kan konstateras, att en handling som varken fysiskt eller psykiskt övat inflytande på brottets tillkomst eller genomförande, inte föranleder medhjälpsansvar. Därutöver kan fastslås att den nedre gränsen inte uppställer särskilt höga krav för att en medhjälpshandling ska förefalla straffbar. Handlingen behöver inte te sig behövlig för gärningsmannen, lika lite som den behöver vara en betingelse för brottet, för att den ska kunna betraktas som straffbar. Kraven för straffansvar är inte satta högre än att medhjälp genom både tystnad och passivitet under vissa förutsättningar kan innebära utdömande av medhjälpsansvar. Däremot inskränks det straffbara området i viss mån genom något som betecknas som ”livets regel”, vilken bland annat innebär att en person som enbart närvarar och åser ett brott, inte gör sig skyldig till ansvar på grund av medhjälp.

Att en medhjälpshandling måste underlätta eller gynna, eller på annat sätt gagna gärningsmannens brott krävs inte heller, även motverkande handlingar anses kunna föranleda medhjälpsansvar. Vidare inbegriper det straffbara området likaledes underlåtenhet, såtillvida att underlåtenhet att utgöra en viss handling, under vissa förutsättningar kan medföra straffansvar.

Uppsatsen avslutas med att det slås fast att medverkansbestämmelsen strider mot legalitetsprincipen. De krav principen ålägger föreskrifter avseende tydlighet och klarhet anses inte uppfyllda avseende medhjälpsansvarets nedre gräns. Därför argumenterar jag för en justering av bestämmelsen härvidlag. (Less)
Abstract
In Swedish law even a person who only in a lesser degree is involved with a crime, still stands the risk of becoming subject to punishment by criminal law. In such a case the person will be sentenced as a medhjälpare (helper), instead of a gärningsman (actual criminal offender). The question regarding the lower criminal area for those who not play a major role in a crime, seems to have been neglected by the prolonged debate concerning the criminal area between those only helping a crime and those actually committing it, in other words the higher criminal area which separates the helper from the actual criminal offender. The purpose of this study is to try to determine which actions be considered criminalized in the lower criminal area, and... (More)
In Swedish law even a person who only in a lesser degree is involved with a crime, still stands the risk of becoming subject to punishment by criminal law. In such a case the person will be sentenced as a medhjälpare (helper), instead of a gärningsman (actual criminal offender). The question regarding the lower criminal area for those who not play a major role in a crime, seems to have been neglected by the prolonged debate concerning the criminal area between those only helping a crime and those actually committing it, in other words the higher criminal area which separates the helper from the actual criminal offender. The purpose of this study is to try to determine which actions be considered criminalized in the lower criminal area, and which ones are not. This I will do from critical point of view, meaning that this study will also investigate whether the lower criminal area, as it is manifested in 23:4 § BrB, is compatible with the principle of legality in terms of the requirements the principle imposes upon criminal law regarding the provisions clarity.

With regard to the lower criminal area, it can be established, that an action that neither physically or mentally, practice influence upon the origin or the realization of a crime, does not lead to punishment by law, for those partaken in a crime only in a lesser degree. Furthermore, it can be declared that the lower criminal area does not deal with high requirements when it determines if the helpers actions is punishable by law. The helping action can be criminalized, even though the action was not needed on behalf of the criminal offender. Thereto the helping action does not need to be a condition for the crime itself in order to be considered not lawful. Even help through passivity and silence can be, given certain circumstances, considered criminal offences and thus punishable by law. In contrast, the lower criminal area can yet be limited into a certain extent by the application of a rule designated as the rule of life. This rule imply, inter alia, that if a person only stands and observes a crime while its being perpetrated, this fact in itself should not accumulate punishment by criminal law.

That a helpers action must facilitate or otherwise favour the criminal offenders crime, is neither a requirement by the law for it to be deemed criminal. Even a counteracting action from the helper, can induce a punishment. Additionally, the lower criminal area also comprehend the case of a person who omits to do a certain action, given certain circumstances is at hand.

The study finalizes with establishing the fact that the provision fails to live up to the requirements of the principle of legality. The criminal provision does not meet the principles demands in terms of clarity. Therefore, I argue for an adjustment of the provision regarding the lower criminal area. (Less)
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author
Cloustierna, Daniel LU
supervisor
organization
course
LAGF03 20151
year
type
M2 - Bachelor Degree
subject
keywords
medhjälp., medverkan, straffrätt, criminal law
language
Swedish
id
5431409
date added to LUP
2015-07-03 15:05:03
date last changed
2015-07-03 15:05:03
@misc{5431409,
  abstract     = {In Swedish law even a person who only in a lesser degree is involved with a crime, still stands the risk of becoming subject to punishment by criminal law. In such a case the person will be sentenced as a medhjälpare (helper), instead of a gärningsman (actual criminal offender). The question regarding the lower criminal area for those who not play a major role in a crime, seems to have been neglected by the prolonged debate concerning the criminal area between those only helping a crime and those actually committing it, in other words the higher criminal area which separates the helper from the actual criminal offender. The purpose of this study is to try to determine which actions be considered criminalized in the lower criminal area, and which ones are not. This I will do from critical point of view, meaning that this study will also investigate whether the lower criminal area, as it is manifested in 23:4 § BrB, is compatible with the principle of legality in terms of the requirements the principle imposes upon criminal law regarding the provisions clarity.

With regard to the lower criminal area, it can be established, that an action that neither physically or mentally, practice influence upon the origin or the realization of a crime, does not lead to punishment by law, for those partaken in a crime only in a lesser degree. Furthermore, it can be declared that the lower criminal area does not deal with high requirements when it determines if the helpers actions is punishable by law. The helping action can be criminalized, even though the action was not needed on behalf of the criminal offender. Thereto the helping action does not need to be a condition for the crime itself in order to be considered not lawful. Even help through passivity and silence can be, given certain circumstances, considered criminal offences and thus punishable by law. In contrast, the lower criminal area can yet be limited into a certain extent by the application of a rule designated as the rule of life. This rule imply, inter alia, that if a person only stands and observes a crime while its being perpetrated, this fact in itself should not accumulate punishment by criminal law. 

That a helpers action must facilitate or otherwise favour the criminal offenders crime, is neither a requirement by the law for it to be deemed criminal. Even a counteracting action from the helper, can induce a punishment. Additionally, the lower criminal area also comprehend the case of a person who omits to do a certain action, given certain circumstances is at hand. 

The study finalizes with establishing the fact that the provision fails to live up to the requirements of the principle of legality. The criminal provision does not meet the principles demands in terms of clarity. Therefore, I argue for an adjustment of the provision regarding the lower criminal area.},
  author       = {Cloustierna, Daniel},
  keyword      = {medhjälp.,medverkan,straffrätt,criminal law},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Straffbar medhjälp? - En kritisk undersökning av medhjälpsansvarets nedre gräns},
  year         = {2015},
}