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Energikartläggning av idrottsanläggningar - fallstudie av en ishall och ett badhus i norra Landskrona

Berdenius, Mårten and Thorkelsson, Ingvi Aron LU (2015) MVK920 20142
Department of Energy Sciences
Abstract (Swedish)
Detta examensarbete är skrivet inom ramen för Green Hub Landskrona (GHL), som är ett samarbete mellan tre kommunala företag i Landskrona och flera institutioner inom Lunds Universitet - LTH. Syftet med samarbetet är att driva omställningen av stadsdelen Karlslund till en hållbar stadsdel genom innovativa lösningar för energi, avfall och boende.

Detta examensarbete utförs som ett första steg i denna omställning. Arbetets syfte är delvis att kartlägga energianvändningen av två energikrävande anläggningar i området, nämligen Landskrona ishall och Karlslundsbadet. Det andra syftet är att utvärdera befintliga riktlinjer för energikartläggningar utifrån hur väl de stämmer överens med varandra, vilka aspekter de lyfter fram, vilka... (More)
Detta examensarbete är skrivet inom ramen för Green Hub Landskrona (GHL), som är ett samarbete mellan tre kommunala företag i Landskrona och flera institutioner inom Lunds Universitet - LTH. Syftet med samarbetet är att driva omställningen av stadsdelen Karlslund till en hållbar stadsdel genom innovativa lösningar för energi, avfall och boende.

Detta examensarbete utförs som ett första steg i denna omställning. Arbetets syfte är delvis att kartlägga energianvändningen av två energikrävande anläggningar i området, nämligen Landskrona ishall och Karlslundsbadet. Det andra syftet är att utvärdera befintliga riktlinjer för energikartläggningar utifrån hur väl de stämmer överens med varandra, vilka aspekter de lyfter fram, vilka begränsningar de har samt hur väl de kan appliceras på idrottsanläggningar. Fyra riktlinjer har analyserats i arbetet varav Energimyndighetens riktlinjer har använts i de genomförda kartläggningarna på idrottsanläggningarna, men vissa anpassningar har gjorts utifrån tillgänglig data.

Anläggningarna var dels en ishall, av typen mindre publikhall, med en utomhusisbana och ett äventyrsbad med en liten utomhusbassäng. Båda anläggningarna var försörjda med el från det koncessionspliktiga nätet och med fjärrvärme. I början av kartläggningsprocessen berättade anläggningarnas driftpersonal att det aktiva arbetet med energihushållning i anläggningarna tidigare varit mycket begränsat och främst utförts i samband med underhållsbehov.

Energikartläggningarna utfördes bland annat genom en rad platsbesök där intervjuer hölls med personal, styrsystem studerades och installerad effekt avlästes från de olika komponenterna. Kartläggningarnas resultat jämfördes med genomsnittsdata för liknande anläggningar i Sverige, från Energimyndighetens inventering av energianvändningen i olika lokaler, benämnd STIL2. Det visade sig att anläggningarna använde allt från 20 % till fyra gånger mer energi än genomsnittet i STIL2. Karlslundsbadet avvek betydligt mer från genomsnittet än ishallen, men avvikelsernas storlek berodde på om energianvändningen jämfördes utifrån uppvärmd area, verksamhetsarea eller efter antal öppettimmar.

Energikartläggningarna fokuserades på elanvändingens fördelning utifrån dess olika användingsområden, såsom pumpar, fläktar och kylmaskiner. I ishallen visade kartläggninen att kylmaskinerna stod för nästan 50 % av elanvändningen, avfuktare för cirka 17 % och diverse pumpar för runt 9 %. I Karlslundsbadet stod fläktar för 36 %, bastur för 26 % och diverse pumpar för 25 % av elanvändningen. I både Karlslundsbadet och Landskrona ishall antogs elanvändningen för utrustningen som av olika anledningar inte kunnat inventeras, främst utifrån data från STIL2 studien, vara 4,6 % respektive 12 %.

Även belysningen för de två anläggningarna inventerades. Inventeringen visade att Karlslundsbadets installerade effekt var lägre än genomsnittet för badhus medan ishallens installerade effekt var högre än genomsnittet för ishallar. Det kan dock konstateras att båda anläggningarna har en stor förbättringspotential vad gäller åtgärder för att minska elanvändningen för belysning.

I enlighet med rapportens andra syfte utvärderades Energimyndighetens riktlinjer utifrån hur tillförlitligt resultatet blev för de två studerade idrottsanläggningarna. I riktlinjerna föreslås att energianvändningen för respektive komponent beräknas utifrån installerad effekt och drifttider där befintlig data inte finns. Storleken på de differenser som kan föreligga mot uppmätta värden, vid använding av denna metodik, har utvärderats inom ramen för denna studie. Utvärderingen har visat att den använda metodiken leder till att den beräknade elanvändningen överskattas grovt i vissa fall. I Karlslundsbadet överskattades den med 35 % och i ishallen med 140 %. Källan till överskattningen var avvikelser i komponenternas aktuella effekt från den installerade effekten och skillnader i total och effektiv drifttid. Dessa överskattningar påverkade de olika användningsområdena i varierande grad, vilket i sin tur ledde till snedfördelningar av respektive användningsområdes andel av elanvändningen. Detta har styrkts bl.a. genom mätningar av kompressorernas eleffekt över en kortare tid i ishallens kylmaskin och är viktigt att ha i åtanke när resultaten tolkas.

Analysen av de befintliga riktlinjerna för energikartläggningar visade på stora skillnader i deras struktur, omfattning och detaljnivå. Variationerna var även stora vad gäller deras beskrivning av insamlande av data och valet av åtgärder. Riktlinjerna tar däremot inte upp något om vilka felkällor som kan uppstå vid användandet av installerad effekt och drifttider eller hur dessa ska hanteras vid en genomförd kartläggning utifrån riktlinjerna.

Riktlinjerna från Energimyndigheten uppger att de användningsområden som står för en betydande del av energianvändningen är de som borde studeras vid sökandet efter möjliga åtgärder. Detta angreppssätt går Energimyndigheten själv emot i sin bok, Energikoll i små och medelstora företag.

Generellt för alla riktlinjer var att de lägger stor vikt vid de ekonomiska kalkylerna för en åtgärd. ISO-standarden var den enda som även lyfte fram vikten av att andra aspekter än ekonomi kan anses vara viktiga vid valet av åtgärder.

Utifrån genomförda fallstudie konstaterades att var och en av riktlinjerna i sin helhet inte fungerar för anläggningar motsvarade Karlslundsbadet och Landskrona ishall. (Less)
Abstract
This Master´s thesis is a part of the project Green Hub Landskrona (GHL), a collaboration between three municipally owned companies in Landskrona and a number of institutions within the faculty of engineering at Lund University. The aim of GHL is to transform the neighbourhood Karlslund, northern Landskrona, to a sustainable district, through innovative solutions for energy, waste management and housing.

As a first step towards this transformation, the aim of this thesis is partly to carry out energy audits of two of the neighbourhood’s facilities with particularly high energy consumption. These facilities are the city’s only ice rinks, Landskrona ishall, and the city’s main public swimming pool, Karlslundsbadet. The second aim is to... (More)
This Master´s thesis is a part of the project Green Hub Landskrona (GHL), a collaboration between three municipally owned companies in Landskrona and a number of institutions within the faculty of engineering at Lund University. The aim of GHL is to transform the neighbourhood Karlslund, northern Landskrona, to a sustainable district, through innovative solutions for energy, waste management and housing.

As a first step towards this transformation, the aim of this thesis is partly to carry out energy audits of two of the neighbourhood’s facilities with particularly high energy consumption. These facilities are the city’s only ice rinks, Landskrona ishall, and the city’s main public swimming pool, Karlslundsbadet. The second aim is to evaluate existing guidelines for energy audits based on how well they match with each other, which aspects they emphasize, what their limitations are and how well they can be applied to sports facilities. Four guidelines were evaluated and the energy audits of the facilities were performed according to guidelines from the Swedish Energy Agency (SEA), with certain adjustments to available data.

The indoor ice rink is relatively simple, with audience capacity of 1400 people and includes an adjacent outdoor ice rink. The swimming pool is, however, somewhat more sophisticated, with a small outdoor pool and features water play areas, such as slides and whirlpools indoors. According to the staff in charge of the facilities’ operation, the emphasis on energy economisation had been very limited prior to the execution of this thesis. Earlier efforts to reduce the energy consumption of the facilities have mainly been motivated by maintenance requirements.

The energy audits were carried out through a number of site visits where staff members of the facilities were interviewed, the control systems studied and the components’ installed electric power surveyed etc. The results for each facility were compared to the average outcome of similar facilities in a study of different facilities energy consumption by the SEA from 2008, called STIL2. It was shown that the facilities used everything from 20% to four times more energy than similar facilities in Sweden. The results did, however, vary greatly depending on which indicators were used.

The main focus of the energy audits was on the distribution of the electricity consumption in the facilities. In the case of Landskrona ishall nearly half of all electricity was used by the chillers. The second largest consumer of electricity was the dehumidifier with 17%, followed by various pumps with 9%. The distribution in Karlslundsbadet was quite different, where fans used 36%, saunas used 26% and various pumps used 25% of the electricity consumption. In both facilities, the electricity consumption of equipment, that for various reasons could not be identified, was quantified by assumptions based on data from the STIL2 study. In the case of Karslundsbadet this consumption accounted for 4,6% but for 12% in Landskrona ishall.

The facilities’ lighting systems were studied more thoroughly than other systems. The results showed that Karlslundsbadet performed better than the average of similar facilities in Sweden, even though the potential for improvement was great. For Landskrona ishall the situation was somewhat worse than in similar facilities.

In accordance with the report's second aim the guidelines from SEA were evaluated on the basis of how reliable the results for the two facilities were. The guidelines recommended that available data should be used primarily. In its absence, data on components’ installed electric power and operation time should be used to calculate the energy consumption. The effect of using this methodology has been evaluated within the framework of this study. The evaluation revealed that it lead to an overestimation of the facilities’ electricity consumption to an extent that greatly exceeded the actual consumption. In the case of Landskrona ishall the overestimation amounted to 140% of the actual consumption, whilst it was only 35% in the case of Karlslundsbadet. The reasons for this inaccuracy were both fluctuations in the components’ electrical power and difficulties in quantifying their operation time correctly. The overestimations affected the different systems to a varying extent and thereby the relative distribution of the electricity consumption. This has mainly been supported by data collected, over a short period of time, for the electrical power of the chiller’s compressors in Landskrona ishall.

The analysis of the presented guidelines for energy audits revealed great differences in structure, extent and accuracy of description. Even in respect to the collection of data and the selection of energy efficiency improvement opportunities, the differences were significant. The inaccuracy caused by the use of components’ installed electric power and operation time was not mentioned in the guidelines.

For the selection of energy efficiency improvement opportunities, the guidelines from SEA recommended further studies of systems that account for a significant share of the facilities’ energy consumption. This focus was presented as a problem in a book published by SEA, Energikoll i små och medelstora företag. The focus on economic indicators, during the selection process, was great in all the studied guidelines. Only the guidelines in the ISO standard highlighted the importance of the additional aspects in the selection process.

Based on this case study it was concluded that the studied guidelines for energy audits were not well suited for facilities like Karlslundsbadet and Landskrona ishall. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
Berdenius, Mårten and Thorkelsson, Ingvi Aron LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Energy audit of sport facilities - a case study of an ice rink and a swimming pool in northern Landskrona
course
MVK920 20142
year
type
H2 - Master's Degree (Two Years)
subject
keywords
energikartläggning, energihushållning, idrottsanläggningar
report number
ISRN LUTMDN/TMHP-15/5331-SE
ISSN
0282-1990
language
Swedish
id
5432446
date added to LUP
2015-05-26 14:22:57
date last changed
2015-05-26 14:22:57
@misc{5432446,
  abstract     = {This Master´s thesis is a part of the project Green Hub Landskrona (GHL), a collaboration between three municipally owned companies in Landskrona and a number of institutions within the faculty of engineering at Lund University. The aim of GHL is to transform the neighbourhood Karlslund, northern Landskrona, to a sustainable district, through innovative solutions for energy, waste management and housing.

As a first step towards this transformation, the aim of this thesis is partly to carry out energy audits of two of the neighbourhood’s facilities with particularly high energy consumption. These facilities are the city’s only ice rinks, Landskrona ishall, and the city’s main public swimming pool, Karlslundsbadet. The second aim is to evaluate existing guidelines for energy audits based on how well they match with each other, which aspects they emphasize, what their limitations are and how well they can be applied to sports facilities. Four guidelines were evaluated and the energy audits of the facilities were performed according to guidelines from the Swedish Energy Agency (SEA), with certain adjustments to available data.

The indoor ice rink is relatively simple, with audience capacity of 1400 people and includes an adjacent outdoor ice rink. The swimming pool is, however, somewhat more sophisticated, with a small outdoor pool and features water play areas, such as slides and whirlpools indoors. According to the staff in charge of the facilities’ operation, the emphasis on energy economisation had been very limited prior to the execution of this thesis. Earlier efforts to reduce the energy consumption of the facilities have mainly been motivated by maintenance requirements.

The energy audits were carried out through a number of site visits where staff members of the facilities were interviewed, the control systems studied and the components’ installed electric power surveyed etc. The results for each facility were compared to the average outcome of similar facilities in a study of different facilities energy consumption by the SEA from 2008, called STIL2. It was shown that the facilities used everything from 20% to four times more energy than similar facilities in Sweden. The results did, however, vary greatly depending on which indicators were used.

The main focus of the energy audits was on the distribution of the electricity consumption in the facilities. In the case of Landskrona ishall nearly half of all electricity was used by the chillers. The second largest consumer of electricity was the dehumidifier with 17%, followed by various pumps with 9%. The distribution in Karlslundsbadet was quite different, where fans used 36%, saunas used 26% and various pumps used 25% of the electricity consumption. In both facilities, the electricity consumption of equipment, that for various reasons could not be identified, was quantified by assumptions based on data from the STIL2 study. In the case of Karslundsbadet this consumption accounted for 4,6% but for 12% in Landskrona ishall.

The facilities’ lighting systems were studied more thoroughly than other systems. The results showed that Karlslundsbadet performed better than the average of similar facilities in Sweden, even though the potential for improvement was great. For Landskrona ishall the situation was somewhat worse than in similar facilities.

In accordance with the report's second aim the guidelines from SEA were evaluated on the basis of how reliable the results for the two facilities were. The guidelines recommended that available data should be used primarily. In its absence, data on components’ installed electric power and operation time should be used to calculate the energy consumption. The effect of using this methodology has been evaluated within the framework of this study. The evaluation revealed that it lead to an overestimation of the facilities’ electricity consumption to an extent that greatly exceeded the actual consumption. In the case of Landskrona ishall the overestimation amounted to 140% of the actual consumption, whilst it was only 35% in the case of Karlslundsbadet. The reasons for this inaccuracy were both fluctuations in the components’ electrical power and difficulties in quantifying their operation time correctly. The overestimations affected the different systems to a varying extent and thereby the relative distribution of the electricity consumption. This has mainly been supported by data collected, over a short period of time, for the electrical power of the chiller’s compressors in Landskrona ishall.

The analysis of the presented guidelines for energy audits revealed great differences in structure, extent and accuracy of description. Even in respect to the collection of data and the selection of energy efficiency improvement opportunities, the differences were significant. The inaccuracy caused by the use of components’ installed electric power and operation time was not mentioned in the guidelines.

For the selection of energy efficiency improvement opportunities, the guidelines from SEA recommended further studies of systems that account for a significant share of the facilities’ energy consumption. This focus was presented as a problem in a book published by SEA, Energikoll i små och medelstora företag. The focus on economic indicators, during the selection process, was great in all the studied guidelines. Only the guidelines in the ISO standard highlighted the importance of the additional aspects in the selection process.

Based on this case study it was concluded that the studied guidelines for energy audits were not well suited for facilities like Karlslundsbadet and Landskrona ishall.},
  author       = {Berdenius, Mårten and Thorkelsson, Ingvi Aron},
  issn         = {0282-1990},
  keyword      = {energikartläggning,energihushållning,idrottsanläggningar},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Energikartläggning av idrottsanläggningar - fallstudie av en ishall och ett badhus i norra Landskrona},
  year         = {2015},
}