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Sakrättsligt skydd vid finansiell leasing

Aneheim Ulvenäs, Joel LU (2015) JURM02 20151
Department of Law
Abstract (Swedish)
Finansiell leasing är idag en etablerad form av finansiering vid anskaffning av egendom. Den finansiella leasingmarknaden i Sverige har sedan 2002 växt stadigt med i genomsnitt 10 procent per år. Trots finansiell leasings vida användning som finansieringsform åtnjuter nyttjanderätter till majoriteten av egendomstyper inte sakrättsligt skydd i svensk rätt. I enlighet med principen att köp bryter legostämma är gällande huvudregel i svensk rätt istället att förvärvare av lös egendom som är belastad med nyttjanderätt har möjlighet att upphäva nyttjanderätten. En nyttjanderätt får alltså stå tillbaka för andra sakrättsligt skyddade rättigheter.

Doktrin har under flera år förespråkat att nyttjanderättshavare vid finansiell leasing bör ges... (More)
Finansiell leasing är idag en etablerad form av finansiering vid anskaffning av egendom. Den finansiella leasingmarknaden i Sverige har sedan 2002 växt stadigt med i genomsnitt 10 procent per år. Trots finansiell leasings vida användning som finansieringsform åtnjuter nyttjanderätter till majoriteten av egendomstyper inte sakrättsligt skydd i svensk rätt. I enlighet med principen att köp bryter legostämma är gällande huvudregel i svensk rätt istället att förvärvare av lös egendom som är belastad med nyttjanderätt har möjlighet att upphäva nyttjanderätten. En nyttjanderätt får alltså stå tillbaka för andra sakrättsligt skyddade rättigheter.

Doktrin har under flera år förespråkat att nyttjanderättshavare vid finansiell leasing bör ges sakrättsligt skydd och att finansiell leasing därför bör undantas från principen köp bryter legostämma. År 1988 tillsattes en omfattande utredning avseende leasing av fast och lös egendom, den s.k. ”leasingutredningen”. Utredningens slutbetänkande publicerades 1994 och innehåller förslag till kontraktsrättsliga, sakrättsliga och insolvensrättsliga lagregler för finansiell leasing av lös egendom. Lagförslagen avseende sakrättsligt skydd för leasingrätter tillstyrktes eller lämnades utan erinran av samtliga remissinstanser såvitt avser det materiella innehållet. Trots det resulterade inte leasingutredningens slutbetänkande i något lagförslag.

Vid senare lagreform avseende nyttjanderätt till luftfartyg har lagstiftaren konstaterat att behovet av förutsägbarhet och stabilitet för nyttjanderättshavaren, tillsammans med den ökade användningen av finansiell leasing och dess betydande värden, har motiverat ett införande av sakrättsligt skydd för nyttjanderättshavaren. I denna uppsats dras slutsatsen att motsvarande argument kan användas för införandet av ett sakrättsligt skydd för nyttjanderättshavare vid finansiell leasing även avseende annan typ av lös egendom än luftfartyg. En sådan reglering är rimlig och ändamålsenlig från ett skydds-, konkurrens- och ekonomiskt perspektiv. Skyddet bör införas som särreglering i förhållande till andra nyttjanderätter eftersom ett generellt sakrättsligt skydd för samtliga nyttjanderätter är svårt att införa i praktiken, speciellt från ett skyddsvärdesperspektiv.

Sakrättsligt skydd delas traditionellt in i omsättningsskydd och borgenärsskydd. Den tidigare rör det sakrättsliga skyddet mot konkurrerande anspråk på egendom och den senare avser det sakrättsliga skyddet mot överlåtarens/upplåtarens borgenärer. Ett sakrättsligt skydd vid finansiell leasing bör omfatta både omsättningsskydd och borgenärsskydd. Ett sakrättsligt skydd som endast i det ena avseendet skyddar leasetagaren kommer troligen inte tillämpas i praktiken eftersom det troligen kommer att kompletteras med pantsättning likt ordningen i nuvarande branschpraxis. Därtill bör ett sakrättsligt skydd införas med sakrättsmomentskrav, såsom tradition och/eller denuntiation. Genom krav på sakrättsmoment blir det uppenbart för tredjeman när leasingobjektet är belastat med en nyttjanderätt. (Less)
Abstract
Financial leasing is an established form of funding the procurement of property. The financial leasing market in Sweden has since 2002 grown steadily by an average of 10 percent annually. Despite the wide use of financial leasing as financing form, the usufructs to a majority of properties are not rights in rem in Swedish law. In accordance with the principle of sale always breaks a right to use, the valid general rule in Swedish law is rather that a purchaser of movables (goods and chattels) that is burdened with a usufruct, have the possibility to suspend the right of use. A usufruct may thereby stand back for other rights in rem.

Doctrine has for several years advocated that the lessee in finance leases should be given protection... (More)
Financial leasing is an established form of funding the procurement of property. The financial leasing market in Sweden has since 2002 grown steadily by an average of 10 percent annually. Despite the wide use of financial leasing as financing form, the usufructs to a majority of properties are not rights in rem in Swedish law. In accordance with the principle of sale always breaks a right to use, the valid general rule in Swedish law is rather that a purchaser of movables (goods and chattels) that is burdened with a usufruct, have the possibility to suspend the right of use. A usufruct may thereby stand back for other rights in rem.

Doctrine has for several years advocated that the lessee in finance leases should be given protection towards third parties on the other contracting party’s side and financial leases should therefore be exempted from the principle of sale always breaks a right to use. In 1988, a comprehensive inquiry was initiated regarding leasing of movable and immovable property, the so-called "Leasingutredningen". The inquiry's final report was published in 1994 and contains proposals for contract provisions, property law and insolvency provisions for financial leasing of movables. The legislative proposals for protection of lease rights towards third parties were endorsed or left without objection by all respondents as regards the substantive content. Despite this, Leasingutredningen’s final report did not result in any legislative proposals.

At the recent law reform concerning rights of use to aircrafts, the legislator concluded that the need for predictability and stability for the usufructuary, together with the increased use of financial leasing and its substantial values, has justified the introduction of protection of lease rights towards third parties. In this paper it is concluded that the corresponding argument can be used for the introduction of protection towards third parties for financial lease rights in respect to other types of movables other than aircrafts. Such regulation is reasonable and appropriate from a protection-value, competition and economic perspective. The protection of lease rights should be introduced as lex specialis in relation to other rights of use, as a general protection for all rights of use is difficult to implement in practice, especially from a protection-value perspective.

The protection for in rem rights towards third parties on the other contracting party’s side, is traditionally divided into acquirer protection and creditor protection. The former concerns the substantive protection against competing acquirers of the same property or of the same rights, and the latter refers to protection against the counterparty’s creditors. A protection for leasing rights should include both acquirer protection and creditor protection. A protection that only in one respect protects the lessee will probably not be applied in practice because it most likely will be supplemented by pledging similar to the scheme in current industry practice. In addition, for lease rights to have effects against third parties, a mandatory requirement such as delivery (tradition) or/and moment of notice (denunciation) should be introduced. By introducing a mandatory requirement, it becomes evident to a third party when a leasing object is burdened with a lease right. (Less)
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author
Aneheim Ulvenäs, Joel LU
supervisor
organization
alternative title
Protection of lessor's interest in financing leases
course
JURM02 20151
year
type
H3 - Professional qualifications (4 Years - )
subject
keywords
Civilrätt (en. private law), Finansrätt (en. fiscal law), Sakrätt, Finansiell leasing
language
Swedish
id
5432533
date added to LUP
2015-06-22 13:11:31
date last changed
2015-06-22 13:11:31
@misc{5432533,
  abstract     = {Financial leasing is an established form of funding the procurement of property. The financial leasing market in Sweden has since 2002 grown steadily by an average of 10 percent annually. Despite the wide use of financial leasing as financing form, the usufructs to a majority of properties are not rights in rem in Swedish law. In accordance with the principle of sale always breaks a right to use, the valid general rule in Swedish law is rather that a purchaser of movables (goods and chattels) that is burdened with a usufruct, have the possibility to suspend the right of use. A usufruct may thereby stand back for other rights in rem.

Doctrine has for several years advocated that the lessee in finance leases should be given protection towards third parties on the other contracting party’s side and financial leases should therefore be exempted from the principle of sale always breaks a right to use. In 1988, a comprehensive inquiry was initiated regarding leasing of movable and immovable property, the so-called "Leasingutredningen". The inquiry's final report was published in 1994 and contains proposals for contract provisions, property law and insolvency provisions for financial leasing of movables. The legislative proposals for protection of lease rights towards third parties were endorsed or left without objection by all respondents as regards the substantive content. Despite this, Leasingutredningen’s final report did not result in any legislative proposals.

At the recent law reform concerning rights of use to aircrafts, the legislator concluded that the need for predictability and stability for the usufructuary, together with the increased use of financial leasing and its substantial values, has justified the introduction of protection of lease rights towards third parties. In this paper it is concluded that the corresponding argument can be used for the introduction of protection towards third parties for financial lease rights in respect to other types of movables other than aircrafts. Such regulation is reasonable and appropriate from a protection-value, competition and economic perspective. The protection of lease rights should be introduced as lex specialis in relation to other rights of use, as a general protection for all rights of use is difficult to implement in practice, especially from a protection-value perspective.

The protection for in rem rights towards third parties on the other contracting party’s side, is traditionally divided into acquirer protection and creditor protection. The former concerns the substantive protection against competing acquirers of the same property or of the same rights, and the latter refers to protection against the counterparty’s creditors. A protection for leasing rights should include both acquirer protection and creditor protection. A protection that only in one respect protects the lessee will probably not be applied in practice because it most likely will be supplemented by pledging similar to the scheme in current industry practice. In addition, for lease rights to have effects against third parties, a mandatory requirement such as delivery (tradition) or/and moment of notice (denunciation) should be introduced. By introducing a mandatory requirement, it becomes evident to a third party when a leasing object is burdened with a lease right.},
  author       = {Aneheim Ulvenäs, Joel},
  keyword      = {Civilrätt (en. private law),Finansrätt (en. fiscal law),Sakrätt,Finansiell leasing},
  language     = {swe},
  note         = {Student Paper},
  title        = {Sakrättsligt skydd vid finansiell leasing},
  year         = {2015},
}